Friday, December 9, 2011

ORTHODOX AND HISTORIC DATES OF SOME HINDU SCRIPTURES, EVENTS AND PERSONALITIES


ORTHODOX AND HISTORIC DATES OF SOME HINDU SCRIPTURES, EVENTS AND PERSONALITIES OF INDIA


    
(TELE-DISCOURSE BY N. R. SRINIVASAN—JAN 2011)

 

 
Ancient and medieval history of India of India has been given by the foreign travelers and others. These are mainly: Megasthanes (302--288 B.C.E.); Abul Fazl (C.E. 1551—1602); William Jones (C.E. 1746—1794); James Mill (C.E. 1773—1836, History of India); Max Muller (C.E. 1823—1900, What can India teach us?); Monier Williams (C.E. 1819—1899, Modern India and the Indians); Col James Tod (C.E. 1782—1835; Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan); and, The Oxford history of India, Vincent A smith, 1958. Modern Indian Research Scholars are basing their calculations on the astronomical data given in the great epics, some archeological evidences and other ancient literature. Western historians should have based their findings on the then available historic records and archeological evidences. Many of the ancient literature remained in the palm leaf written form which was not accessible to these historians. For a long time Hindu scriptures remained in unwritten form passing from mouth to mouth orally. Vedic literature was also difficult to understand and translations were quite confusing. Several Valuable historic and religious documents were burnt and lost during the medieval period by the invaders. The historians mentioned above wrote their history as if the South did not exist at all. Vincent Smith also mention about it in his Oxford history of India. He strongly felt that Indian history will undergo thorough revision once somebody makes a thorough study of abundant literature available in South India both in printed form and palm leaf manuscripts.

 

According to B.G.Tilak, Rigveda dates back to 4500 B.C.E. Hang dates it to 2400 B.C.E. Max Muller goes further down to 1200 B.C.E. Based on Max Muller and others modern historians assign the date 700 to 600 B.C.E. to Upanishads. Both Prof Lakshmikantam in his book "History of the Human past" and Swami Prakashanand Saraswati in his book "the True History and the Religion of India" state that Max Muller was compelled to change his mind and revise the dates of Vedas bringing it down to 1200 B.C.E. as well as dates of other pre Christian events; so also did the Western historian Monier Williams.

 
According to Surya Siddhanta astrologers have calculated that the present Kaliyuga started on the afternoon of 17th February 3102 B.C.E. According to Bhagavata Puraana Lord Krishna lived for 125 years which indicates his descent in 3228 B.C.E. According to this Mahabharata War took place in 3139 B.C.E.

 
Mahabharata states that Bhishma passed away on Magha Sukla Ashtami, after the occurence of Makara Sankranti as he waited for Uttarayan Punyakaala (Northern Solstice). Dr. Narahari, Professor of Physics, Memphis conducting an independent study using planetarium software came to the conclusion that the death of Bhishma should have occurred either in 3067 B.C.E or 2183 B.C.E. His conclusions are based on the years in which there is a conjunction of Saturn (Sani) and Aldebaran (Rohini) between 3500 B.C.E and 500 B.C.E. Winter solstice in January in 2182 occurred on Shukla Panchami whereas the winter solstice in 2182 occurred on Krishna Chaturthi.

 
Hindu astrological studies later turned into precise science of Astronomy. The date of creation of the world according to Jyotisha (astrology) agrees more or less with that of modern science and therefore Jyotisha is a precise science and not a blind belief. Some calculations with regard to heavenly bodies to-day are different from those of the past. If the findings at present are not the same as seen in the scriptures, it does not mean the latter are false. Planetarium software has come as boon to sort out some of these differences. Astronomy has gifted us Surya Siddhanta, a theoretical study on the movement of the Sun. Our scholars have tried to treat this as well as other ancient studies on Astrology as books of wisdom and tried to assign any date or period in relation to human history which till now is based exclusively on the writings of Western historians which are also often intelligent guesses or manipulations. Attempts in this direction have been very frustrating. Hindu sages accorded much greater importance to the principle than the person or the period. Many of the Upanishads do not reveal either the period or the author so also many scriptures. However some scriptures mention the dates of important events, birth and death of great personalities as per Hindu calendar which has given some clues.

 
During the conversation in Mahabharata before the war, Karna describes bad omens that could bring great harm to Kuru's family including the following: "Saturn (Sani) afflicting Aldebaran (Rohini), Mars (angaaraka) has performed a retrograde motion before reaching Antares (Jyeshtha) and is prograde again having past Anuradha, the Moon had last all its luster on the full moon of Kartika and a solar eclipse would appear to take place next new-moon day".
These clues helped software study and helped in determining the date of Mahabharata War.

 
Surya Siddhanta says the Mahabharata War took place in 3139 B.C.E., pushing it back to few years of the date 3067 B.C.E. as s revealed by the software study.

 
Recently Sankara Math of Kanchi Kaamakotipeetham indicates the date of Adi Sankara to 509—477 B.C.E., revising it from the date given by Sankara Math of Sringeri Saradapeetham which mentions it as 788—820 A.D. as per the historians Prof. MacDonell and Prof. Max Muller. This date is also quoted by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan , Jawaharlal Nehru and others in their writings. Since the date given by Surya Siddhanta for Mahabharata War closely agrees with that based on planetarium studies it is safer to assume the dates given in Surya Siddhanta for many historical events after the dawn of Kaliyuga as factual rather than the guesses of Western Historians for pre-Christian times of India whose history remains obscure and conflicting. Historians also got mixed up with similar names in different dynasties.

 
Hindu Panchangas published in India by various astrological institutions indicate that the year 2011 beginning on January 1, according to Gregorian Calendar corresponds to Kali Era 5112 and Salivahana Saka Era 1933 named Vikruti in the 60-yerar cycle of Hindu years starting from Prabhava and ending in Akshaya.

 
On the basis of research work done by the Dr. Narahari Achar, the date of Bhagavadgeetaa could be safely taken to be at least as 3000 B.C.E. Geetaa actually repeats some of the Mantras of Upanishads verbatim and reflects all the ideas of Upanishads. Therefore Upanishads should be fore-runners of Bhagavdgeetaa as it unmistakably bears the influence of both Kathopanishad and Svetaasvatara. Dr. Ranade, author of "Bhagavadgita as a Philosophy and God Realization" suggests that the doctrines of activism and non-attachment which we find in Geetaa is borrowed from Isavasya Upanishad; the Asvattha simile from Kathoepanishad; the idea of Viswaroopa as well as the antimony between ritualism and non-ritualism is from Mundaka Upanishad; the concept of five virtues in the 16th chapter from Chandogya Upanishad; and the yogic teachings from Svetaasvatara Upanishad.

 
Bhagavdgeetaa is doubtless the earliest text belonging to the devotional school of Hindu religion and Vaishanvism. This monolithic school was founded by Krishna Vaasudeva belonging to the Saatvata sect of the Yadu class. He was reverently referred to as Bhgavaan. Lord Krishna also says in Bhagavadgeetaa among Vrishnis, I am Vasudeva. Probably he is the fore-runner of Lord Krishna who also belonged to Yadu clan in which Vishnu took his incarnation as Lord Krishna. Mahabhaarata also tells that Krishna regularly meditated on Brahman in the hours before sun rise, which were the time recommended in the Saastras for meditation. In Chandodgya Upanishad there is a reference to Devaki putra (son of Devaki) who was the disciple of the sage Ghora Aangirasa.

 
In all probability Krishna could be a historical figure and a philosopher who harmonized the Sankhya-yoga philosophy with the Brahmavaada of Upanishads. These have been described in Geeta Darshan, a research work on Bhagavadgeeta by Kalpataru Research Academy of Sarada Peetham of Sringeri Sankar Math. Geetaa is a literary master piece conveying vividly the highest philosophy in the form of a poem which has acquired honored place in the religious literature of the country along with Brahmasootra and the Upanishads. It is philosophical in outlook and very practical in intent. Geetaa's composition should have begun long before Mahabharata war and could have brought into the present shape by Vedavyasa and dramatically introduced into Shanti Parva of Mahabharata as the Song of the Celestial. Bhagavadgeeta upholds the Varnashrama originated from Purusha sookta. Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad even classifies gods into four Varnas of Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Soodra—Agni is Brahmin; Indra, Varuna, Soma, Yama, and Easana are Kshatriyas; Vasus, Rudras and Aadityas are Vaisyas and Poosan is a Soodra. Bhagavadgeeta nowhere condones the evil in the world or man. At the same time it promotes the idea common in all religious philosophies Saranagati (total surrender to Lord), condoning any action as long as it ends in love of God. Saranagati is the basic philosophy of Ramanuja, founder of Srivaishnava Sampradaya (tradition).

 
We come across the famous women Vedic sages Vaacha, Ambhrini, Romasaa, Gaargi and others in the Upanishads. By the time Geeta was presented to the world women along with Vaisyas and Soodras were considered as "Paapayonis" as by then they should have given up the study of the Vedas and stopped practicing sacrifices. Only those who underwent Upanayana were allowed to study Vedas as it was obligatory to undergo this samskaara for taking up Vedic studies. Evidently Vaisyas, Soodras and women should have given up Upanayana samskaara, walked out of study of Vedas, teaching Vedas and practicing sacrificial form of worship by the time Geetaa came into being. Women should have also confined their activities to home and did not undergo Upanayana Samskaara needed for Vedic studies. Probably they were all considered as committing sins by not performing these Karmas. It is therefore not surprising to find Krishna's statement in 9/32 of Geeta: "Because those who seek refuge in Me, O Partha! Be they women, Vaisyas, Soodras and others born in sinful class, they too attain the highest Bliss".

 
Only Brahmins and Kshatriyas were given the high status in society during Puranic period—Kshatriyas as the protectors and Brahmins as intellectuals and advisers to ruling class. Manu Dharma Saastra also held Brahmins in exalted position, but had been considerate to women and to some extent to lower castes too. For the same crime lower castes were given lesser punishment. Women were shielded giving the total responsibility to men to take care of them all the times and even sharing the benefit of their good deeds (Punya karmas), even though they were only observers in ritualistic sacrifices.

 
All these trends clearly show considerable time should have elapsed between the sacrificial Vedic period and the Puranic period of Bhgavadgeetaa. Therefore Upanishads should have been written much earlier to that of Bhagavadgeeta. B.G. Tilak, on the basis of an astronomical data provided in the Maitraayana Upanishad, has assigned 1900 B.C.E. as the date of that Upanishad. The main Upanishads should have been written much earlier. If we were to consider the findings of Dr. Narahari on the date of Mahabharata War as well as Surya Siddhanta, the Upnishads should go back to a date much earlier to that of Bhagavadgeeta which is of 3000 B.C.E. If Rigveda were to be 4500 B.C.E., then Upanishads could be from 4000 B.C.E. to 1000 B.C.E. Some Upanishads were later written like the one described above.

 
Since date of Mahabharata war almost concurs with that of the findings of Dr. Narahari based on his research with the help of planetarium software it is reasonable to assume the date given in Surya Siddhanta is more reliable than those given by western historians and Western educated historians. Some of the important dates for the pre Christian era are given below as well as dates followed in Indian history to-day. There had also been confusion about Ashoka the Great, whose real name was Samudragupta Ashokaditya. He was also known by another name, Priyadarsin. This confusion caused many mistakes in dates for several events.

 
There is also a reference in Jaina Harivamsa to Krishna who is the cousin of Neminatha. Neminatha is believed to have lived about eight century B.C.E. The famous Hindu battle of Kurukshetra is also dated in this to eighth or ninth century B.C.E. which should have also confused the early historians to push the date of Mahabharata War and Bhagavadgeetaa to a much later date, the basis on which they could have also guessed the date of Upanishads and Vedas to a much later date dismissing astronomical evidences as blind beliefs.

 
Based on the above details it will be logical to assume the orthodox historic dates as worked out by renowned astrologers, B.G.Tilak, Prof. Laksmikantam and Swami Prakashanand Saraswati in his True History and Religion of India. According to Surya Siddhanta the astrologers have calculated that Kaliyuga started on the afternoon of 17th February, 3102 B.C.E., and there are number of historical and scriptural evidences to confirm the same. Orthodox historical dates as well as the present historical dates used in schools in India based on the Western Historians is included in a table below. Hinduism Today of Havaii has worked out following dates for some important events of the Pre-Christian Era.
    Vedas and Upanishads                            Eternal
Beginning of Indus Sarsvati cities                        5000 B.C.E.
Indus –Sarasvati Valley civilization at its peak         2600—2000 B.C.E.
Migration of population to North and Central India      2000 B.C.E.
India's unified culture in Gangetic Plain; Grihya Sutras             600 B .C.E.        Foundation of the Mauryan Empire                         300 B.C.E
Maghada Empire; Buddhism; Jainism 500 B.C.E.
Gupta Empire 320 C.E.
Name of the event
Orthodox Date of the Event*
Indian History Dates@
Age of the Vedas
Eternal/4500 B.C.E.
1400—1000 B.C.E.
Upanishads
Prior to Mahabharata War 2500—2000 (Ramkrishna Math)
1000—600 B.C.E.
Descension of Lord Krishna
3228 B.C.E.
-----
Mahabharata War
3139/3067 B.C.E.(Narahari)
-----
Brihadratha Dynasty of Magadha
3139—2130 B.C.E.
-----
Ascension of Lord Krishna
3102 B.C.E.
-----
Beginning of Kali Era
3102 B.C.E.
-----
Pradyota Dynasty
2139—2001 B.C.E.
-----
Sisunaga Dynasty
2001—1641B.C.E.
650 B.C.E.
Gautama Buddha
1894—1814 B.C.E.
563—483 B.C.E.
Mahvira Vardhamana
540—468 B.C.E.
Nanda Dynasty
1641—1541B.C.E.
467—362 B.C.E.
Maurya Dynasty
1541—1241 B.C.E.
Chandragupta Maurya
1541—1507 B.C.E.
Bindusara
1507—1479 B.C.E.
Ashokavardhana
1479—1443 B.C.E.
Confused as Asoka the Great
Sunga Dynasty
1241 B.C.E. (beginning)
184—72 B.C.E.
Kanva Dynasty
784 B.C.E. (ending)
72—27 B.C.E.
Sankaracharya
509—477 B.C.E.#
788-820 A.D.
Saatavaahana
100 B.C.E.—225 C.E.
Gupta Dynasty
328—83 B.C.E.
320—490 C.E.
Alexander's Invasion
326 B.C.E.
326 B.C.E.
Chandragupta Vijayaditya
328—321 B.C.E.
321—305 C.E.
Samudra Gupta/Ashoka the Great
321--370
335—375 C.E.
Vikramaditya/Chandra Gupta II (Vikrama Era)
102 B.C.E.—15C.E. (53 C.E.)
375—413 C.E.
Shalivahana
25—85 C.E.
Shalivahana Saka (Era)
78 C.E.
Sathavahanas/Andhra Dynasty 784—328 B.C.E. 100 B.C.E—225 C.E.
*Dates as given in "The True History and Religion of India", Swami Prakashanand Sarasvati
# Also given in "Hindu Dharma", by Jagadguru Chandrsekharendra Sarasvati.
@ Vincent A. Smith, Oxford History of India; Prof A. Sesahiengar, India through the Ages.

 
NOTE--No steps have been taken by Government of India to correct the history taught in schools though elaborate research has been done on Indology promoted by it. Salivahana Saka Era was started by King Salivahana to celebrate his victory over Sakas in 78 C.E. This begins on Yugadi day in Chaitra and is also used in Indian legal records. Vikramaditya the legendary king of Ujjain started Vikrama Era in 57 B.C.E. to celebrate his victory over Sakas.




Rama and Krishna’s Birth--Sky Maps Star Position During Rig Veda
Posted by Ramanan | Nov 16, 2015 |IndiaDivine.Org

Indian Puranas, History and The Epics are not fairy tales. They are facts. I have been verifying statements of events mentioned in these texts with the help of Astronomy, etymology of word used, archaeological evidence, anthropology, geology and tools like carbon dating,  Atomic verification, infra- red evaluation, etc.
I have published posts on many events narrated in the Indian Texts. Now I am posting information on the appearance of the sky during,
The Rig Vedic Period
1. Rama’s Birth,
2. Krishna’s Birth.
These maps have been arrived at running the references found in these instances through a Software designed to arrive at star positions and period.

Rig Vedic Period Sky Map.

There are 53 references in Rigveda as prayers offered to Aswinis at dawn. The description clearly points to the observation of the pair of stars in the Aries constellation (referred to as Aashvin or Asvini) just before sunrise as a ritual to mark the year beginning. Using Planetarium software, we find that the Winter Solstice occurred on 19 December, 7000 BC at 0735 hrs.
This is the earliest reference to Vedic calendar with year beginning at Winter Solstice, found in Rigveda (5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). Heliacal rising of Ashwini Nakshatra (Aries) can be seen to occur on 5th January, 7000 BC, marking the year beginning.

A thousand years later, Winter Solstice no longer occurred near Aries (Asvini) due to precession. As a result, Ashwinis were no longer rising heliacally as before. They were still below the horizon at sunrise around Winter Solstice time. The Winter Solstice had moved to Revati by 6000 BC. Thus the precession of Equinoxes and Solistices was being observed by Rigvedic Scholars.
The Sky of 19th December, 6000 BC at sunrise on the Winter Solstice day shows that Ashvini gave way to bright star Chitra (α Vir) on opposite side (Western horizon). A full Moon in Chitra Nakshatra provided a new time marker in the sky and heralded the lunar month naming system-Chaitra, Vaisakha etc. (Rigveda: 5-74-1,2 and Tait Samh. 7-4-8).

Rama’s Birth, Sky Map.
Rama was born on the Navami Tithi of Shukla Paksha of Chaitra masa(9th day of the increasing phase of the moon in the lunar month of Chaitra). At that time, the Nakshatra was Punarvasu, and Sun, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and Venus were in Aries, Capricorn, Libra, Cancer and Pisces respectively. Lagna was Cancer and Jupiter & Moon were shining together. — Ramayana 1.18.8,9.
1. Sun in Aries
2. Saturn in Libra
3. Jupiter in Cancer
4. Venus in Pisces
5. Mars in Capricorn
6. Lunar month of Chaitra
7. 9th day after New Moon (Navami Tithi, Shukla Paksh)
8. Moon near Punarvasu Nakshatra (Pollux star in Gemini constellation)
9. Cancer as Lagna (Cancer constellation rising in the east)
10. Jupiter above the horizon
The observations on the left, when entered into Planetarium software gives us the above Sky Chart, which in turns gives forth the below mentioned date.
Sri Rama Navami – 10th January 5114 BCE – Birth Day of Rama
Observation at 12.30 p.m.

Skymap During Krishna’s Birth.

Lord Krishna was born around midnight. That night was the eight phase of the moon known as Ashtami Tithi. The moon was near Vrshabha, the bull, i.e the Taurus constellation that houses the star Rohini. The star Rohini is known as Aldeberan in modern astronomy. The month was Shravana, one of the 12 months in the Indian calendar.
Shravana vada ashtami, Rohini Nakshtra, uditam Lagnam . Date of Krishna’s Birth by Gregorain Calendar. 27th July, 3112 BCE

Astronomical events repeat themselves at regular intervals. Hence fixing one date is difficult. We are taking the last event for calculation. As time is Eternal and Cyclic, the events repeat themselves.