Thursday, March 29, 2012



(I-Discourse by N. R. Srinivasan, April 2012)

It is hard to find a village in India where Hanumaan is not worshipped as an independent deity though his icons are invariably seen in the company of Rama with his consort Seetaa and Lakshmana, his inseparable brother. Hanumaan seems to be a folk-deity of wide popularity. He was incorporated into the sophisticated pantheon of gods in Puraanas which gave rise to many legends about his origin. The place where he spent his early years is presumed to be the hilly track Hampi in Karnataka. The place where he was born in Tretaayuga is believed to be Anjanaadri, where his mother Anjana made a severe penance for 12 years to beget him, present day Venkataadri Hills (Tirumalai Hillls) in Andhra Pradesh. Vaalmeeki introduces him to us in Kishkinda Kanda of Ramayana where Rama along with his brother Lakshmana met him as a young Brahmachari (Celibate) in the human form. Rama is generally seen with his bow and arrows with his wife on the left side, Lakshmana his brother with his bow and arrows to the right side and devoted Hanuman in front of him with his bent head and folded hands. Rama is the seventh incarnation of Vishnu in Tretaayuga.

Icons of Hanumaan also called by his birth name as Aanjaneya can be seen in several postures: Bhakti Aanjaneya is seen standing in samabhanga or tribhanga posture with his hands joined in an attitude of Bhakti or supplication (Anjali); In Agni Purana he is depicted with his right hand carrying a lute (Veena) and left hand carrying a book or Vajrayudha (mace); Veeraanjaneya is seen in his walking or running or flying posture holding a mountain in his right hand and a mace in the left hand reminding us of his role in Sudarakanda crossing the ocean; alternately he is also seen carrying an uprooted tree in one hand and clenched fist on the other reminding his participation in the war against Ravana's mighty force; as Yogaanjaneya he is seen in a meditative mood practicing Yoga in a sitting posture with right hand holding a rosary placed on his chest in Chinmudra and the left hand resting on his crossed legs: he is affectionately called Ramaanjaneya when he is seated with bent head joining hands in greeting position (Namaste or anjali posture); in his Panchamukhi posture, he is seen with five heads with the front one being that of a Monkey, lion to the south representing Narasimha (Man-lion), Divine Boar to the north representing Varaaha, Divine Eagle to the west representing Garuda, Divine Horse above the front head representing Hayagrieva. Panchamukhi Hanuman reminds the devotees of his parenthood with Vishnu. Varaaha, Narasimha and Hayagrieva are the incarnations of Vishnu and Garuda is Vishnu's mount. Hanuman is also seen as the mount of Vishnu, reminding of his service in carrying Raama and Lakshmana on his shoulders in difficult situations. In all Vaishnava temples in South India Hanumanta Vaahana is seen which is being used during Brahmoetsava (annual procession of deities) time. Icons of Hanuman and his flag-posts are proudly portrayed wherever Hindus practice their physical exercises known popularly as Vyaamasaalas (gyms) in the North and Garadis in Karnataka. He is the presiding deity of these institutions like Saraswati and Nataraja in Hindu educational institutions and Hindu dance schools.

The story of Hanumaan depicting his origin, his growth, his valor, strength and ceaseless devotion to Raama and his continuance eons after eons (yugas) as Chiranjeevi (ever living, eternal) is scattered in various Puranas and also in different versions of Raamaayana--Vaalmeeki, Tulsidas, Adbhuta, Aananda etc.

Hanumaan's parenthood is shared by Siva, Vaayu and Vishnu and by his mother Anjana and father Kesari. Punjakastala was a divine damsel of vivacious beauty and cheerful countenance. She once made fun of a saint and became a victim of his curse to lose her charm and turn into a monkey. Later overpowered by her grief and repentance the saint eased her curse and added that she could turn into a human being and to her normal beauty when the curse ends. She married Kesari, the king of monkeys. He was brave like a lion and so was named Kesari.

Anjana could not get a child for a long time. She performed penance and practiced austerities propitiating Lord Siva. Pleased with her steadfast devotion, Siva granted her a boon that He would be born to her.

Vaalmeeki Ramayana describes the great Putrakaameshti Yajna conducted by Dasaratha desirous of having a progeny as he was childless for a long time though he married thrice and had three living wives. On successful completion of the Yajna, Agni, the God of Fire brought a sacred pot of pudding to be shared among his three wives. By divine ordnance, a kite snatched a tiny fragment of that pudding and flew over the forest where it dropped the same. Anjana was doing her penance nearby. Vaayu developed strong chemistry to the vivacious Anjana and captivated by her voluptuous beauty embraced her in a love-lock. Anjana got agitated but Vaayu appeased her that he was carrying the seed of Siva in the pudding that he picked up and assured her that she will have a child of great accomplishments and formidable strength and intelligence by the grace of Siva as well as Vishnu. The pudding had a Vishnu component as evidenced in Rama and his three brothers. Anjana was relieved and was very happy. A child was born to her as a result and was called Aanjaneya who was also popularly called as Vaayusuta, son of Vaayu.

Siva Purana has its own story to tell about Hanuman as follows:

“Incarnation of Hanuman

Lord Shiva was so infatuated by the appearance of lord Vishnu in his form of Mohini roopa that his semen was released on the ground. This semen was established by the Saptarishis in the womb of Anjani, with the permission of lord Shiva himself. Though Siva is believed to be an ascetic who is least influenced by Kamadeva by his followers the story in Siva Purana as well as origin of Aiyappa reveal that Siva continues to keep his extra marital relationship with enchantress Mohini in  Tretayua as well as Kaliyuga.

In this way was born the mighty Hanuman. Once, during his childhood Hanuman had swallowed the Sun, which he released only after the deities prayed to him. The sun accepted him as his disciple and made him proficient in all the learning’s. He started living with Sugreeva as per the instructions of his teacher – the Sun.

During the time of Sri Ram’s exile, Sugreeva developed friendship with him with the help of Hanuman. Hanuman helped Sri Ram in finding the whereabouts of Sita, who had been abducted by the demon king-Ravana. He took a giant leap and jumped across the ocean. He went to Ashok-Vatika where Ravana had kept Sita. He gave Sri Ram’s ring to her and consoled her by saying that very soon Sri Ram was going to arrive and release her from Ravana’s captivity. He also burnt the whole Lanka by his burning tail and returned to Sri Ram to give him Sita’s news while the battle was fought between Sri Ram and Ravana Laxmana got seriously injured and became unconscious. Hanuman saves his life by bringing the whole of mountain, upon which the herb Sanjivani grew.

Being present at the service of Sri Ram, Hanuman performed his duties marvelously. Worship of Hanuman helps a man to become free from all kinds of problems, diseases and hurdles etc.”

Hanumaan even as a baby played his pranks natural to monkeys on Durvasa known for his hot temper. He cursed him that he will be ignorant of his great strength to use it when he needed. But quickly reconciling he modified his curse somewhat that when someone reminded him about his great powers he would become alive to it. Vaalmeeki Ramayana describes how Hanuman kept silent to take the adventurous leap across the ocean till Jambavaan reminded him of his great strength even as a child.
 Time had come for Anjana to get release from the curse and return back to celestials. Hanuman was sad. He wanted to know who will find food for him and what will be his future. She assured him that he will never perish for lack of food and fruits as ripe as rising sun would form his food. She also assured him that his father Vaayu will all always be there to help him. When Aanjaneya felt hungry he saw the rising Sun and recalled his mother's parting words. He dashed towards the red Sun thinking it to be a real fruit. Raahu who occasionally harassed Sun (on the days of eclipse) now found a competitor to grab his privilege. Raahu complained to Indra, King of Devas, that some monkey was heading towards Sun to harass him. Infuriated Indra struck Aanjaneya with his thunderbolt, wounding his chin and knocking down to earth. Vaayu in the absence of Anjana came to his rescue and carried him to Netherworlds and shut himself from the world along with his son. When Vaayu moved out of Earth, life was in peril and world was threatened for early extinction. Therefore Brahma with all other Gods pleaded to Vaayu to return to Earth and function normally. They all conferred on Aanjaneya great boons in order to appease Vaayu. The blessings of all the Gods made Aanjaneya invincible. Aanjaneya then on was called Hanumaan on being hit on his "Hanu" that is his chin. Aanjaneya was granted permanent invincibility and immortality. Lord Vishnu conferred the boon of invincibility and Lord Siva granted Hanumaan immortality from his death-wielding Trident (Trisool) and Lord Brahma granted him immunity from any kind of arrow including his own terrible Brahmaastra. As we come to know later Indrajit's Brahmaastra had no effect on him.

Hanumaan chose Surya as his Guru and Surya was also pleased to accept him as his disciple being a close associate of Vaayu. Sun was always on the move and it was not possible for him to teach Hanumaan at one place. But Hanumaan by now had enough strength and was willing to move with the Sun while learning. Soon he became a master of all Vedas and an adept in Sastras. Time had come for him to take leave of his Guru. Hanumaan wished to pay handsome Gurudakshina as per the tradition before leaving his master. Surya was so pleased with his outstanding performance and implicit obedience that he did not want any. But Hanumaan insisted. Surya therefore told him to go to his son Sugreeva in Kishkinda and serve him as his minister and adviser.

Hanumaan soon joined Sugreeva as his minister in Kishkinda. After some time Sugreeva had a quarrel with his powerful brother Vaali who not only deprived him of his post, grabbing his wife Ruma, but also chased him to kill him. But Sugreeva managed to settle down in Rishyamooka Parvata along with his friend and philosopher Hanumaan where Vaali could not come to get him due to a curse from the sage Maatunga. The story of Hanumaan from now on till the war on Lanka is too well known to all. But still a brief survey is worth considering.

It is here Rama met Hanumaan who went as an envoy of Rama and found Seetaa in Ashokavana in Lanka. He showed his strength by setting fire to Lanka, and even as a single individual proved formidable for Ravana to discipline him. Single handed he killed a host of Ravana's warriors including Akshaya Kumara and Jambumaali. Even Brahmaastra of Indrajit had no effect on him. He struck fear in the minds of Ravana as to what to expect buying the wrath of Rama, his mentor. If a single monkey could cause so much havoc what would happen when the whole battalion was there? He played an active role in bringing Vibhishana and Rama together as he learnt about his noble intentions during his previous visit to Lanka. He personally killed Ravana's stalwart warriors Akampana, Nikumbha, Devaantaka, Naraantaka, Nikumbha and Trisira in fierce battles.

The most significant part played by Hanumaan is in getting the Mandaara Mountain to the battle field with its medicinal plants, Visaala Karani, Mrita Sanjeevani, Sauvarna Karani and Sandhaana karani. These medicinal plants went into hiding when Gandharvas who were guarding them were killed by hanuman. But he did not lose courage. He moved the whole mountain in time to save the lives of Lakshmana and many others. This heroic deed needs elaborate description as Valmeeki was very brief on it.

Ravana' son Indrajit had been blessed with a boon from the Gods that he could fight without being seen by the enemy. In the battle that ensued Lakshmana was hit by Sammohanaastra which made him unconscious. Even Rama started crying "Where shall I find another like you, Oh Lakshmana!" Hanuman was worried and so he rushed to Sushena, the army physician. Sushena pronounced that life had not yet parted Lakshmana and he could be revived with an herb called Vishlayakarani found in Mount Gandhamadana if it could be brought before the next sunrise. Normally it would have taken 18 years to go there and come back. But Hanumaan was the only one who could fly over and come back within 18 hours before sunrise. But it was not easy to find that golden creeper with yellow flowers even if one could reach the mountain and come back also within the available time. But it was worth a try.

Hanumaan assumed his giant form as before and started on his flight to Himalayas. Ravana saw him and soon guessed that Hanumaan was on his mission to bring Vishalayakarani before sunrise the next morning. He also recalled how his earlier wish to kill all with Sarpaastra failed due to the timely intervention of Garuda. He therefore thought about a plan to spoil Hanumaan's mission. He called his uncle Kaalanemi and ordered him to go to Gandhamaadana and destroy Hanumaan with his magical powers. As a Raakshasa he had the ability to reach Gandhamadana faster than Hanumaan. But how to kill Hanuman was his problem. He had already tasted the power of Hanumaan who had killed so many of the top generals and burnt Lanka killing so many of his relatives. So, he pleaded his inability. Ravana insisted and asked him to use his magical powers. He made an attractive offer to part with half of his kingdom for him if he succeeded in his mission. He also threatened him simultaneously to kill him if he did not obey his orders.

Caught between the devil and the deep sea, Kaalanemi reached Gandhamaadana earlier than Hanumaan, created a beautiful hermit and disguising himself as a hermit waited on the way for Hanumaan at the entrance to the forest. Hanumaan did not miss the fake hermit. In order to hasten his search he thought he could make use of the hermit's good offices. Paying due respect to the sage Hanumaan explained to the sage his mission and wanted to know the exact location where he could find the medicinal plant. Hermit assured him that it was not a problem and it will not take any time. He also insisted he should go to the nearby river take his bath and have some food before they could go and fetch the medicinal plant. Kaalanemi knew that Hanuman would not come back as the river had a killer giant crocodile which spared no one who touched the waters. He thought that it was the easiest way to get rid of Hanumaaan and get his share of half the kingdom.

With great hesitation Hanumaan heeded to his advice for he did not want to buy his wrath, as he needed his co-operation very much. Hanumaan saw the crocodile dashing forth, but was quick enough to catch it and tore open its breast. To his surprise a celestial nymph came out of the ripped body, thanked him for his merciful act, getting her release from the curse and cautioned him about the evil intentions of the fake sage who was none other than Kaalanemi, uncle of Raa vana and an emissary sent by him to spoil Hanuman's mission. Things were now clear to Hanumaan. He spared no time and rushed back to the sage. He pulled out his false beard and coiling his long tail round his body hurled him to the sky and threw him with such a force Kaalanemi fell down just in front of Ravana in Lanka. Ravanna was furious and in a fit of anger killed his uncle too for failing in his mission. Though vanquished, Ravana did not give up hope. He saw the setting Sun. He immediately summoned him and asked him to change his direction and rise early so that Lakshmana would see the sunrise and die too. If Lakshmana dies, Rama would also die, victory would be his and Seetaa too. He was the Lord of Three Worlds and Sun dare not disobey his orders.

Sun had no choice but to obey his master. Hanumaan was also quick on his feet. He met his guru and found the reason for his sudden decision. But Sun pleaded his helplessness. Hanumaan pretended to whisper something in Sun's ears and when he came near he grabbed him and bundled him under his arm pit. He then proceeded towards Kubera's gardens. But the Gandhrvas who were around would not here to his story and also would not allow him to go further. They all started teasing him thinking him to be an ordinary monkey. In a fit of anger he killed them all and proceeded further. He did not waste his time in searching for the plant since he could not get any help and was getting late. Therefore he uprooted the whole mountain and flew back with it holding it on his right hand and holding the mace with his left hand to fight back any attack. On his return journey Ravana sent seven powerful serpant like rakshas to attack Hanuman flying with the mountain. Hanuman fought with all of them and killed them.

Sushena was happy to see Hanuman back and was surprised to see him come with the whole mountain. After hanuman's explanation he went into the mountain to find the herbal medicine. He had no difficulty in finding the right herb and restoring Lakshmana and others back to normal. Rama thanked Hanumaan profusely and was curious to know, what was that shining under his arm pit. Hanumaan laughed as he had forgotten about his Guru kept under arrest and released him. Rama had no words to express his appreciation about Hanuman's presence of mind. Hanumaan then took back the Mandaara Parvata back and restored it to its place. He did not forget to revive all the Gandharvas whom he had killed with the medicinal herb having learnt the trick of the trade from Sushena. Gandahrvas thanked him for his merciful act and begged his pardon for having insulted him early and also not being helpful. Hanumaan made good friends and soon returned back to Lanka and joined his master in his fight against the formidable Raavana.

Just before the last day of the war Rama and Lakshmana were taking rest in the camp. They needed badly some sleep. Ever vigilant Vibhishana wanted to know what was up the sleeves of Raavana though Raavana was let go by Raama and was asked to come the next day to fight his last battle. He soon learnt that Raavana was on a plan to abduct both Raama and Lakshmana while they were asleep. He informed this to Sugreva, Hanumaan and others. They quickly launched upon a plan to keep vigil the whole night while Raama and Lakshmana were asleep. Hanumaan built a formidable fortress around the place with his tail after assuming a giant form. Vibhishana, Sugreeva and Angada took the responsibility of keeping watch around the fortress and blocking the entrance while Hanumaan was holding the fortress in position.

Raavana after being once defeated by Raama in the battle was not sure of his success in the battle that he had to face the next day. He therefore thought of a plan to kill both of them by some other means so that he need not have to face them in the battle again. He summoned his son Mahiraavana, the king of Netherworlds and requested him to use his magical powers to take away both the brothers while asleep without their knowledge and use them for his human sacrifice that night to Goddess Durgaa. He also explained to him how both the brothers were successful in killing his sister, uncle, brother, all his other sons, generals, including the most powerful Indrajit. He also told him that both the brothers were closely guarded by none other than Hanumaan, Sugreeva and Vibheeshana.

Mahiraavana disguised himself as Vibheeshana by his magic powers and was successful in entering the fortress and carry both of them while asleep without their knowledge through a secret passage created by him under the earth on which the formidable fortress of Hanumaan's tail stood. He then locked them in a prison in the campus of the Durgaa temple. He also ensured to see that both the brothers were weaponless as they had just removed their bows and arrows prior to sleep and kept them near to their beds. Without these both would be powerless to launch any attack. When Sugreeva met the real Vibheeshan the cat was out of the bag and all the three realized they have been tricked by Mahiraavana. Hanumaan spared no time and went through the same secret passage through which Mahiraavana fled carrying the two brothers casting a spell on the brothers not to notice the incidence. Soon he arrived at the capital city of Mahiraavana and was sitting on a tree to find out the possible hide outs of the brothers. At that time an old woman noticed Hanumaan sitting on the tree and took it to be literally a monkey. She informed her lady associates that she is seeing a monkey and also saw Mahiraavana carrying two human beings and locking them up in a chamber in the temple. She did not feel comfortable as the presence of human beings and monkey was ill omen and soon the city will be doomed as per the predictions of Lord Brahma. This much clue was enough for the ever alert hanuman. He took the form of a bee and circled around the temple and entered the sanctum sanctorum of Goddess Durgaa and paid his obeisance to her first. Durgaa was pleased to see him and was willing to help him in his mission without displeasing her devotee who of late had become bad harassing innocent many but at the same time very devoted to her. They both worked out a plan of action. Hanumaan thanked her and left immediately.

He then went to Raama and Lakshmana, woke them up, and cautioned them as to what they should do in the absence of their weapons. Hanumaan hid himself behind Durgaa and watched the events. Mahiraavana after initiating the worship went to the secret chamber, tied the hands of both the brothers behind and brought them to the sacrificial altar. Both the brothers did not protest and implicitly obeyed him as per plan. He then untied the hands of Raama and asked him to bend down before Goddess, pay his obeisance to her and get ready for the sacrifice. Raama then politely told Mahiraavana as the prince of Ayodhya he never knew how to pay his obeisance to any body and wanted Mahiraavana to show him how to do it first so that he may avoid offending Devi by doing it wrongly. Hanumaan also prompted Mahiraavana to do so imitating the voice of Goddess Durgaa. Mahiraavana acted accordingly. Hanumaan was quick enough to snatch the sword beside the altar and cut the head of Mahiraavana instantly as the night's sacrifice to Devi. He then carried both the brothers on his shoulders and speeded back to the camp through the secret passage. Everybody was happy and Rama thanked Hanumaan for his timely help as their life saver once again.

There is yet another story somewhat deviating from the above as described below:
Hanumaan speeds up to Patala to find out the hiding place of Raama and Lakshmana by Mahiraavana. At the entrance gate of Netherworlds he was stopped by a gate keeper named Makaradwhaja. Asked who he was he says that he was son of Hanumaan and brought up by Ahiraavana, the brother of Mahiraavana. Makharadwaja had the face of monkey and the body of fish. Hanuman was taken by surprise as he was celibate all his life and therefore curious to know how he was son of Hanumaan and living in Netherworlds. Makaradhwaja told that his mother was a giant fish caught by Ahiraavana. While cutting it and getting it ready for cooking to offer to Devi, Makardhwaja was retrieved from her womb and was brought up by Ahiraavana. The fish swallowed a sweat drop of Hanumaan fallen in the ocean and as a result Makaradhwaja was born of monkey face of Hanumaan. Though he was happy to meet his father he wanted to remain loyal to his foster father. Hanuman appreciated the sense of gratitude of his son but his immediate concern was to find Raama and Lakshmana and take them back. It did not take long for him to over-power his son and move forward.

Hanumaan learnt the whereabouts of Rama and Lakshmana, about the plan to sacrifice and also how formidable the brothers were for anyone to conquer or kill. Secret of their life was contained in five lamps in the temple of Devi which had to be blown all at one time by a powerful face to overcome them. As stated above Hanumaan assumed the form of a fly, went into the temple, was successful in getting the cooperation of Devi to eliminate both the brothers who were becoming worse day by day in harassing innocent people. He also met Rama and Lakshmana, cautioned them about their impending danger, their helplessness without their powerful arms and the plan he had worked out with Devi.

Hanumaan assumed the form of Panchmukhi (five faces) and blew the lamp out all at once and removed the first obstacle of their invincibility while the lamps were on. He then hid behind Devi, and in the voice of Devi asked for Milk first. He demanded more and more. Though surprised as to why Devi was demanding milk that day instead of blood they conceded to the request thinking that it was Devi who was demanding it. Hanumaan then asked Ahiraavana to come alone, in the voice of Devi, to the concealed area of sacrificial altar where Rama and Lakshmana were brought in and kept waiting for sacrifice. When Ahiraavana came in Hanuman easily caught hold of him and killed him with the sword. Blood gushed forth with milk and started flowing out. Mahiraavana waiting outside got a suspicion and came inside. Hanumaan soon killed him also and released the brothers from their handcuffs and moved out carrying them on his giant shoulders. At the gate he also released Makaradhwaja and proceeded back to Lanka through the underground passage created by Mahiraavana. Rama when he knew Makardhwaja was the son of hanuman due to donated genes by way of sweat asked him to make him King of Paataala. Later Hanuman eliminated all bad elements and made him King of Paataala when Vibheeshana was crowned King of Lanka. Raama had no appropriate words to thank Hanumaan for his daring selfless service and valor, which left no alternative to Raavana except to face Rama and die at his hands as destined.

Hanuman was given a pearl necklace by Seetaa at the coronation ceremony. With typical curiosity natural to monkeys Hanuman started examining each pearl closely. The citizens of Ayodhya were curious to know what he was doing with the pearls so affectionately given in appreciation of his invaluable services. Hanuman replied back that he was looking for Rama in each pearl. One citizen of Ayodhya laughed and said: "Rama is on his throne and not in the Pearls". Hanumaan immediately replied back "It is not true; Vishnu is all pervading and so is Raama who is his incarnation; he is in the rocks, in the trees in the sky and even in my heart". The citizen then asked him to show Rama in his heart. Hanumaan did not hesitate to rip open his chest with his sharp nails and bare hands. Citizens were amazed to see the divine icon of Rama in his chest! So deep rooted was his devotion to Rama.

On completing his mission, Rama ascended to heaven with all the people of Ayodhya. He however asked Hanumaan to remain in the world and enjoy listening to his story and serve the world as he was a Chirajeevi, ever-living personality. Hanuman continues to live to remind us of our service to humanity, enjoying stories of Rama heard from the devotees of Rama.

Thus we can see his presence in Dvaapara Yuga by the following anecdotes. It is also believed that he will be the next Brahma after the present Brahma completes his hundred years. Present Brahma is now in his 51st year. Mahabharata has some interesting anecdotes where Hanumaan interacts with Arjuna as well as his half-brother Bheema. Some of these are retold below.

Pandavas were spending their time in exile for thirteen years in the forest. They were in despair to stay in the same forest when Arjuna left for Indrakeela to acquire celestial weapons from Devas. Arjuna took a long time to return and they spent nearly five years without him. That caused their anxiety. On their way they met sage Lomasha who came with the good news that Arjuna's mission has been successful but Devas needed him for a little while. He also wanted them to come with Lomasha after visiting all holy places to the top of the Gandhamadan where he would meet them in Kubera's gardens. They were happy to hear these good tidings and started their journey. The rugged, long, winding and climbing path was not easy particularly for Draupadi. Further it was all snow bound. They went as far as they can. They wanted to stop on the way and wanted Bheema alone to go forward, meet Arjuna and come back. Bheema did not want to be alone after experiencing life without Arjuana. Bheema summoned his son Ghatokatcha who was happy to transport them on his shoulders with his associates except Bheema. They went up to the place where Nara and Naaraayana did their penance. They rested for some time there. One day Bheema and Draupadi went out for a walk. During their walks a sweet smelling celestial flower landed in the hands of Draupadi with which she was enchanted. She wanted to have more of it.

Bheema would do anything Draupadi wants. He left her in the company of others and started on his mission in spite the reservations of Yudhishtira in those rough terrains. After many hurdles he arrived at a banana grove and also saw a lake nearby. This banana grove was the home Hanumaan. Looking from a distance and seeing Bheeema Hanumaan knew very well who he was and also what his mission was from his spiritual powers. He wanted to play a little prank on him as is normal with all monkeys and particularly with Hanumaan. He put on an appearance of an old and exhausted monkey and laid himself on the ground with his tail blocking the way. When Bheema approached the monkey, he wanted the monkey to remove his tail so that he could move without disturbing the resting monkey. It was a sin to cross over a sleeping person. The monkey got disturbed with its sleep and told him that he was too tired to get up. It also told him that path further was not intended for mortals and he should go back. Bheema then told him that he was son of Kunti and also half brother of Hanumaan being the son of Vaayu and that he was on an urgent mission to fetch some flowers for his wife Draupadi. He wanted to impress on the monkey that he was not an ordinary mortal. The monkey then told him that if he were in such a hurry, he could lift his tail and push it aside and proceed. Enraged by this Bheema tried to push away its tail and proceed further. To his disappointment he suddenly found the tail was becoming heavier and heavier as he tried to lift it using all his strength; he could not move it even an inch. He soon realized that this was not an ordinary monkey and it should be none other than his mighty brother Hanumaan.

Bheema folded his hands and begged his pardon for his harsh words and wanted him to show his giant form with which he crossed the ocean which he had read in Puranas. Hanumaan then revealed his identity and showed his giant form. He then came to his normal form, embraced his brother and showed him the way to find the flower and also wished him luck. He also promised to help him in the war by seating himself on the flag of Arjuna's chariot, learning their woeful story from the very mouth of Bheema though he knew it very well by his spiritual powers. He also told him not to tell his place of living to any one and then vanished. Bheema after taking leave of his affectionate brother proceeded as directed by Hanumaan, got the flowers after entering the pond defeating all the Gandharvas. With the blessings of Kubera and Hanumaan, Bheema returned back to his brothers and handed over the flowers to Draupadi. Draupadi felt proud that she had such a talented husband and was also confident that Bheema would one day fulfill his promise to kill Dussasana to tie her hair back and restore her feminine beauty. Bheema felt within himself how lucky he was to meet his brother but did not mention it even to his brothers or Draupadi as wished by Hanumaan.

On another occasion Hamnumaan met Arjuna by chance. Arjuna then questioned why such a powerful person like Raama needed the help of simple monkeys to build the bridge which he himself could have done it with his Kodanda and quivers as well as the help from his equally talented brother Lakshmana. Arjuna said he could also do that with his Gandeeva. Hanuman thought he should teach a lesson to Arjuna as he was very proud of his Gandeeva. He therefore wanted him to show him how he could do that. If Arjuna was successful Hanuman would help him in his war against Kauravas by sitting on his chariot in the flag post, watching the enemy, directing the course of the chariot and also protecting it from the powerful weapons of Bheesma, Drona, Karna, Asvatthaama and others. Also, if he failed in his mission, he had to sacrifice himself by jumping into the pyre.

Arjuna then made a bridge across the river nearby with his Gandeeva spreading the arrows in a knitted form and asked Hanuman to try it. Hanumaan assumed his giant form and crushed it by just standing on it. Arjuna in despair threw his Gandeeva and was about to enter into the Pyre. Krishna sensing the calamity arrived on the scene and told him to repeat the performance, as there was no judge at that time when the bridge collapsed and also there were no visible signs of its collapse. Hanuman had no problem to any number of such trials as he was proud of his strength too. Arjuna repeated the building of the bridge with his arrows and Krishna just touched the same. Hanumaan saw the face of Raama in place of Krishna while he was touching the bridge. Hanumaan tried again with his giant form and full strength repeated number of times but the bridge would not budge. It was not hard for Hanumaan to realize that Krishna was none other than Raama both being the incarnation of Vishnu. He bowed to Krishna with his usual gait as he used to do Rama and promised all his help during the Mahabharata War. Then they parted.

When Mahabharata War ended Hanumaan left the flag. Krishna also got down from the chariot and asked Arjuna to alight immediately throwing away his weapons to which he implicitly obeyed. The chariot was reduced to ashes forthwith. Arjuna was surprised to see that and asked Krishna how could that happen. Krishna explained that his chariot was burnt already by the powerful Astras of Bheeshma, Drona and Karna and only He and Hanumaan were holding on to it for the successful ending of the war. Arjuna paid his obeisance both to Hanumaan and Krishna recalling the above incidence in which Hanumaan had promised his help. He also recalled the incidence in which he could save his head against the formidable Sarpaastra loaded with Taksha proceeding towards him, due to the pressing down of the chariot with Krishna's toes that made the chariot to sink to the Earth and the arrow could only lift his crown saving the neck. At that time he was only watching Krishna. He did not look up and missed Hanumaan in his act. He now realized that it should have been the joint effort and Hanumaan played his part too very well since the arrow was too quick for even Krishna alone. Fortunately for him Karna was also bound by the promise as to not to use the same weapon twice.

There are also other stories where Hanumaan humbled the pride of many including the great sages Narada, Tumbura and Viswamitra as well as Balarama and others. They are too many and too exhaustive to repeat here. These can be easily accessed in various Puranas.

Once, Narada and Tumbura both quarreled, each considering him superior to the other. They came to Hanumaan to settle the dispute. Hanumaan received them with due respect and asked them to sit on two stones. He then started singing praising Rama and the stones on which they both were sitting started melting. When he stopped singing the stones started solidifying and hardening. Narada and Tumbura found stuck fast to stone. Hanumaan asked them to sing and see whether rocks would melt and free them. This did not happen. Hanumaan then sang, the rocks melted again and both found themselves free. They were both humiliated and went home humbled.

On his return to Rameswaram from Lanka Raama asked Hanumaan to bring a Linga to worship Siva. Hanumaan could not arrive in time for Raama's worship. Raama in the mean time made a Linga out of locally available sand and completed his pooja. Hanumaan arrived late with a Linga and wanted to replace the sand Linga with the stone Linga he brought with the help of his powerful tail. But he could not do so. Raama did not want to disappoint his devout Hanumaan. He ordered that worship should first be offered to the Linga Hanumaan brought and then only worship should be offered to the sand Linga consecrated by him. Raama did not want to disappoint Hanumaan who made a genuine effort at the request of Raama. Hanuman's devotion to Raama and Raama's love to Hanumaan can find no parallel. Hanuman's tail impressions can still be seen on the sand Linga in Ramesvaram.

Once a great congregation of sages had assembled in Raama's court where sages like Vasishta, Viswamitra, Jaabaali etc were present. Naarada the mischief maker (kalaha priya) also jumped into the assembly and posed a question to the august body whether the "Naama" (name) was great or the "Moorti" (idol) for worship is great? A heated discussion took place and it was decided that the chanting the name of the God (Naama Japa) was more important than Darsana (Viewing of God).

When all the sages were leaving the assembly Hanumaan paid his respect to all Brahmarishis except to Viswaamitra who was not a Brahmarishi as advised by Naarada. Naarada also told Hanumaan that Viswaamitra was only a Kshatriya King and did not deserve special treatment.

Infuriated with this act of Hanumaan, Viswaamitra told Rama that he should pass a death sentence on him for insulting a learned sage. Raama will not fail in his kingly duties however dear one may be including his wife Seetaa. He was caught in a dilemma. Viswaamitra was his Guru and Hanumaan was his ardent disciple. He requested Hanumaan to plead for the mercy of Viswaamitra before sun rise. But Hanumaan headed towards Sarayu and started chanting Raama Naama. Raama had no alternative than to use the powerful Brahmaastra to chop off the head of Hanumaan, not realizing Hanuman had the immunity even against Brahmaastra and Hanumaan's famous guardian was Raama Japa at all times. As the Astra approached his voice raised chanting Raama naama. The Astra had no effect on him. Raama had done his duty as directed by his Guru. All the citizens were watching the fight with great tension. They were all relieved and Viswaamitra was humbled. Naarada left the scene chanting his famous mantra "Naaraayaan Naaraayana"

There is a similar story in which the person who insulted Viswaamitra was the King of Vaaranaasi (Kaasi) who was a staunch devotee of Hanumaan. Hanumaan saved him from the wrath of Viswaamitra from being killed at the hands of Raama by administering the powerful Raama mantra.

There is a small shrine dedicated to "Langoor Devata" (Hanumaan) in many Devi temples of India in the North. He serves as the body-guard for the Devi. As we all know Hanumaan was responsible to reunite Seeta with Raama, who was abducted by Raavana and often threatened to be killed if she was not willing to marry him. When Raama killed Raavana and ascended the throne, Hanumaan was chosen as the eternal attendant to Seetaa by Rama because of his chastity, strength, wisdom, devotion and selfless service. Hanumaan, after the departure of Raama became the protector of stree–raajya, the kingdom of women. Once, goddess demanded that he make love to women of stree-rajya and bear children to test his chastity. Hanuman was in a dilemma; how can he disobey goddess while he wished to be a celibate? In despair he began singing songs in praise of goddess as well as Raama to help him in his helpless situation. With Hanuman's powerful prayer all the women became pregnant without his mental as well as physical contact. Hanuman thus succeeded in his test and won the eternal admiration of Devi.

In Kaasi a divine voice told Tulsidas to pray to Hanumaan first if he wanted to see Raama physically in Kaliyuga. Hanuman advised him to go to Chitrakoot in his dreams where he would
be able to find Raama. Raama twice appeared before him but Tulsidas failed to recognize him. So Hanumaan appeared in the form of a parrot and recited this couplet (doha):"Chitrakoot ke ghaat par hai santan ki bheer | Tulsidas chandan ghise tilak det Raghubeer|| Tulsidas had his desire fulfilled through the good offices of Hanuman and was wonder-stuck with emotion seeing Raama. He then returned to Kaasi to begin his work to write Ramayana in Sanskrit. But advised by Lord Sankara in his dreams he went to Ayodhya and completed his work in Avadh language.

Hanuman is believed to be an incarnation of Lord Siva, who came to help Rama to achieve his objectives of ridding the earth of terror created by demons. He is therefore addressed by using the prefix "Sankatmochan" meaning one who liberates from crisis. There is a temple in Tamil Nadu in India in Tiruvaanaikkoil where Siva is worshipped with five faces of Linga called Panchaanana. Strangely there is a temple for Hanuman near Kanpur in a small town named after Hanuman with five faces, called Pankhi, shortened form for Pancha Mukhi, five faces.

Usually Hanuman deity is coated with vermilion. When prayers are offered to Hanuman deity it is customary for the priest to apply a dot of the vermilion on the devotee's forehead as blessing. This practice is traced back to an episode in Ramayana. Also Tuesday is held sacred for the worship of Hanuman.

One Tuesday morning Hanuman felt hungry and went to Seetaa to ask for something to eat. He saw the vermilion in the parting of Seetaa's hair, and as is natural for his clan he was curious to know why there was red color in the parting of her hair. Seetaa smilingly replied: "Dear Hanuman! This is vermilion (sindoor). This is symbolic of a married woman. It is auspicious for a happy married life. A woman seeking the long life for her husband applies it throughout life. It symbolizes husband's contentment".

Hanuman wondered that if a pinch of vermilion could ensure long life for his master, would not
applying it on his entire body make his master immortal! He thought seriously. So, he applied vermilion all over the body and went to Rama's court. Everybody in the assembly laughed at his funny appearance. This embarrassed Hanuman. Even Rama could not contain his laughter within, but chose not to exhibit. Rama knew Hanuman is humble, simple-hearted and obsessed with devotion for his master. He wanted to make this incident a blessing for Hanuman. Rama therefore announced: "Whoever offers vermilion and oil on Tuesday to my dearest Hanuman, he shall always be dearest to me". Hanuman jumped with joy. For a moment, he thought of what Seetaa had told him. After Rama's blessings, Hanuman's faith in Seetaa's words grew deeper.

Since then, remembering the deep relationship between Rama and Hanuman, vermilion dissolved in oil is offered to Hanumaan. The ceremony of coating Hanuman's icons with vermilion and oil is symbolic of offering clothes to Hanuman.

Why do we offer oil to appease Sani devata? It is customary to bathe Sani in oil during Navagraha worship. This practice also goes back to an incidence in Aananda Ramayana. Hanumaan was in charge of the security of the bridge which was constructed across the ocean (Sethu) to reach Lanka. One evening, when Hanuman was sitting in a pious mood repeating the name of his master Rama, Sani appeared on the scene with his ugly form and challenged Hanumaan. Hanumaan asked him not to disturb him as he was in the midst of his evening prayers. Sani was adamant and was keen on picking a fight not realizing the strength of Hanumaan. Hanumaan stood up, moved his tail up, wrapped him up and hit him against the stones. Sani started bleeding. Vanquished and humbled Sani pleaded to Hanuman that he will not repeat his mistake again and also will not trouble any of the devotees of Rama. Hanumaan slowly released Sani form the iron grip of his coiled tail. Sani requested Hanumaan if he could spare some oil to relieve his wretched pain. Hanumaan gave the oil chanting the name his master Raama. Sani's pain was relieved instantly. Since then it has become customary to offer sesame oil to Sani Devata. Sani feels contented and is favorably disposed to the devotees who offer him the oil with devotion.

In South India it is customary that many Air-force officer's family perform Abhishekam (Bathing ritual) and offer special prayers to Hanumaan for the safety of their loved ones for Hanumaan is the son of wind God Vaayu in which medium they do their duty.

The Tirumal hill was known as Kreedaachala or Kreedaadri (divine sports place) as sacred as Vaikuntha, having been located in heaven. It was called Anjanaadri or Anjanaachala in Tretaa Yuga. It is now called Venkataadri or Venkataachala. Anjanaadevi, the wife of the tribal chief Kesari was advised to go to the Aakaasa Ganga stream on the Venkataachala hill and meditate for twelve years to beget a son. She lived on water for the first year, and on a sweet fruit given to her by Vaayu the next twelve years. Then she gave birth to a son named Aanjaneya. In honor of Anjanaadevi's penance the hill was named Anjanaadri in Tretaa Yuga. When Raama was on his way to Lanka, he was a guest of honor of Anjana. He and his monkey army bathed here before proceeding to Lanka. Raama's victory over Raavana is attributed to the sacred Anjanaadri hill, according to Vaayu Puraana. This is presumed to be the place where Hanuman was born according to the Sthala- puraana (local legend).

Hanumaan is an adept in Hatha Yoga. A person who has subdued his senses and controlled his breath with full faith in God to make his body light and fly fast in the air or float effortlessly is a Hatha Yogi says Patanjali in his Yoga sastra. In recent times Madhvaachaarya went to Himalayas altitudes with bare chest. He was a Hatha Yogi too. After waiting some days his disciple gave up all hope he was still alive. To his surprise Madhva was back after meeting Vedavyasa, discussing scriptures with him and on his advice was back to Badrikasrama to complete his mission though he wanted to spend rest of his life with him. Madhvaachaarya was a Hatha Yogi and also incarnation of Vaayu like Hanumaan. He was also his half brother like Bheema. It is believed Vedavyasa is also a Chiranjeevi like Hanumaan and spends his time in Himaalayas like Hanumaan. Madhvacharya, Raghavendra, Saibaba, Tulsidas and other saints had seen Hanumaan as told by them in their writings. It is also believed he will be the next Brahma when the life of present Brahma ends. Present Brahma is in his 51st year (Brahma's year) and will continue for another 49 years before the arrival of Hanuman to take over his duties says Chandrasekakhrendra Saraswati of Kanchi Kamkoti Peetham in his book of Dharma.

All the qualities that could be conceived as great virtues in Hindu concept of Dharma can be found in Hanumaan. There is no creation in the entire world of Indian thought which combines the lofty ideals that India stands, parallel to Hanumaan. Hanumaan's icons are therefore found today in every village, every town and every city. Children are invariably taken to Hanuman temples to ward off fear, evil spirits and cure sickness as he is a symbol of health and strength.
Devotees also wear Hanuman Talisman and tie Yantras (talisman) around their arms as a protection all the time. Splashing holy water on the faces of children to drive fear away is a common scene in all Hanumaan temples. Some famous temples for Hanumaan sprang up during the medieval period. One such temple is the famous temple at Suchindram in Tamilnadu. The temple is consecrated with 18' Hanumaan. There is also a Hanumaan Temple in Sholinger in Tamilnadu where people throng the temple to ward off evil with which people are psychologically affected. Hanumaan temple at Pankhi near Kanpur is famous for Panchmukhi Hanuman. Also there are Panchmukhi Hanumaan temples in Kerala and in Kumbakonam and Tiruvallur of Tamilnadu though not famous like the one in Pankhi. Recently a temple for Hanumaan has come up with a 32 feet Hanumaan in Naganallur in Chennai, perhaps the tallest monolithic idol of stone. Trinidad and Tobago has a Hanumaan idol of 80 feet the largest in a foreign soil. Recently Andhra Pradesh has installed a giant Hanumaan of 135 feet.

Before starting Ramayan Path (religious recitation) it is customary to pay respect to Hanumaan with these famous slokas (hymns) on Hanumaan:

Goshpadeekrita Vaaraasim masakeekrita raakshasaam | Ramayana Mahaamaalaa ratnam vande anilaatmajam ||
Salutations to the son of Vaayu, who crossed the ocean as if it were length between two feet of the cow, who made short of giants, as if they were mosquitoes and who formed the crown gem of the necklace of gems called Ramayana.

Anjanaa-nandanam veeram jaanakee soekanaasanam | Kapeesamaksha-hantaartam vande Lankaa bhayankaram ||
I pay my obeisance to the Lord of Monkeys, the dear son of Anjana, the great hero, the killer of Aksha, the nightmare to the city of Lanka, and the one who removed the sufferings of Seetaa.

Manoejavam Maaruta tulya vegam jitendriyam buddhimataam varishtham | Vaataatmajam vaanara-yootha-mukhyam Sriramadootam sirasaa namaami ||
My obeisance to Hanumaan, who is Lord Sriraama's emissary. He has the speed of Wind-God (Vaayu) whose son he is. He has control over his senses and is the best amongst the intelligent. He is the most accomplished amongst all Monkey warriors and I bow to him with reverence".

Yatra yatra raghunaatha-keertanam tatra tatra krita-mastakaanjalim | Baashpavaari-paripoorna –loechanam maarutim namata raakshasa-antakam ||

Wherever the name of Rama is uttered, there, folding his hands above his head and with tears of joy and Bhakti (devotion) filled in his eyes, stands Hanumaan, the terminator of Rakshasas paying his obeisance.

Aanjaneyam-ati-paata-laalanam kaanchanaadri-kamaneeya vigraham | Paarijaata-taru-moola-vaasinam bhaavayaami pavamaana-nandanam || (Dhyaana sloka for Vidyaa Hanumaan)

I contemplate on the son of Anjanaa, the delight of the wind-god, who has blood-red face, who is endowed with a personality charming as a mountain of gold and who has taken up his abode at the foot of a Paarijaata tree. (Parijaata tree is one of the five sacred trees credited with the power of granting one's desires)

Sant Tulasidas attributes super natural powers and different kinds of wealth to Hanumaan in his Hanumaan Chalisa describing his strength and devotion: Arimaa—reducing the body size to an atom; Mahimaa—expanding one's body to an infinitely large size; Garimaa—becoming infinitely heavy; Laghumaa—becoming infinitely light; Praapti—unrestricted access to all places; Easitvaa—absolute Lordship; Vasitvaa--subjugating all. The nine kinds of wealth are the nine types of devotion.

Hanumaan's matchless character, heroic deeds and towering spirituality cannot be better expressed than in the words of Swami Vivekananda as follows:

"You have to make the character of Mahavira your ideal. See how at the command of Ramachandra he crossed the ocean. He had no care for life or death! He was perfect master of his senses and wonderfully sagacious. You have now to build your life on this great ideal of personal service. Through that, all other ideals will gradually manifest in life. Obedience to the Guru without questioning, and strict observance of Brahmacharya—this is the secret of success. As on the one hand Hanumaan represents the ideal of service, so, on the other he represents leonine courage, striking the whole world with awe. He has not the least hesitation in sacrificing his life for the good of Raama. A supreme indifference to everything except the service of Raama, even to the attainment of the status of Brahma and Shiva, the great world Gods! Only the carrying out of Sri Raama's best is the one vow of this life! Such whole-hearted devotion is wanted".

Hanumaan langurs are trained in New Delhi to scare off aggressive rhesus monkeys and other wild animals that might roam into public places and cause mischief. These primates are valued as security guards and also revered as a deity. Hindus revere them as a symbol of the monkey-deity Hanumaan, whose simian army helped rescue Seetaa and with whose help Raama destroyed the demon king Raavana and his entire devil contingent. Languor's black faces and extremities bring back to memory the burns that Hanumaan suffered in the course of his heroism in setting fire to the entire city of Lanka and causing panic amongst all evil citizens of Ravana. These monkeys which are about two feet long and 25 to 40 pounds are the only primates besides humans that thrive in the harsh habitat of Thar Desert in India. They live up to 40 years if not killed by disease. I still recall how life in Kanpur came to stand-still by declaring strike when a Colonel shot and killed a languor which was creating nuisance and destroying his gardens.


Every Hindu deity has a sacred Mantra, Dhyana sloka and Gayatri. Mantras are sacred because they are from ancient stages and always have a particular meter in which it has to be chanted. Here are some of the mantras for different forms of Hanumaan though the names of Rishis are not revealed in all cases. Even now it is customary (sampradaya) to receive a sacred mantra from a Kulaguru or religious leader for chanting or meditation by staunch religious followers.

Maalaa Mantra
of Hanumaan

Hreem Om namoe Bhagavan Prakata-paraakrama Aakraanta-digmandala yasoevitaana-dhavaleekrita-jagat tritaya-vajradeha Rudraavataara lankaapuree-dahana udadhi-bandhana Dasagreeva-kritaantaka Seetaasvaasana Anjanaa-garbha-sambhava Raamalakshmana-aanandakara kapisainya-praakaaraka Sugreeva-dhaarana Parvatoet-paatana Baala-brahmachaarin gambheera-sabda sarvagraha-naasana sarva-jvaroetsaadana daakinee-vidhvamsin Om hreem haa haa haa hamsa hamsa ehi sarva-visham hara hara parabalam kshoebhaya kshoebhaya mama sarva-kaarayaani saadhaya saadhaya hum phat swaahaa ||

Sphatikaabham svarna-kantim dvibhujam cha kritaanjalim |
Kundala-dvaya-samsobhi mukhaambhojam muhur-bhaje ||

Vidyaa Hanumaan Mantra
Om Namoe Bhagavate hanumate mama madana-kshoebham samhara samhara aatma-tatvam prakaasaya prakaasaya hum phat swaahaa ||


Aanjaneyam-atipaatalaalanam kaanchanaadri-kamaneeya–vigraham |
Paarijaata-tarumoola-vasinam bhaavayaami pavamaana-nandanam ||

Aavesa Hanumaan Mantra

Kasim kuksha varavara anjanaa-varaputram aavesi aavesi om hreem hanuman phat swaahaa
(Same as above)

Yoga-anjaneya Mantra

Om namoe bhagavate aanjaneyaaya aatma-tatvam prakaasaya swaahaa ||
(The Rishi is Vasishtha, the Chhandas is Anushtup, and the Devataa Aanjaneya)

Vaame jaanuni vaama-baahum-aparam jnaanaakhya-mudraayutam
Hriddese kalayan vrito muniganair-aadhyaatma-dattekshanah |
Aaseenah kadaleevane manimaye baalaarka-koti-prabho
Dhyaayan-brahma param karotu mansah siddhim Hanooman-mama ||

Aadaaya doshnaa salilam prasannam pra-japya mantram prabipet trivaaram |
Raagaadi-dosha-prasamaaya buddhih jnaanoedayaaya prasamaaya vritteh ||

Hanumaan was disappointed and dejected very much after a long and exhaustive search his initial failure to find Seeta in Lanka with all the hazards and troubles he undertook after the giant leap across the ocean and entering the formidable city of Lanka. He even thought of committing suicide than to return back with a failed mission. At that time looking at the spot of Ashoka forest he resorted to the following prayer which immediately brought him success and fame and shook the mighty Raavana for the first time of facing many such monkeys in the ensuing battle with Rama:
Namostu raamaaya salakshmanaayaa devyai cha tasyai janakaatmajaayai |
Namostu rudrendra-yama-anilebhyo namostu chandraarka marut-ganebhyah ||
[I pay my obeisance to Sri Rama! Obeisance to Lakshmana! Obeisance to Devi the daughter of Janaka! Obeisance to Rudra, Indra, Yama, Vaaayu Devatas, as well as Moon, Sun, and Maruts]

This prayer of Hanuman is resorted to by all those who seek the blessings of the Lord for success in their mission.

This discourse has been prepared by suitably extracting, editing and abridging texts from the following literary sources for the Vedanta Class at Sri Ganesha Temple, Nashville, TN which is gratefully acknowledged:

Why is Lord Hanuman sometimes depicted as married?
The details of this celestial event are found in the manuscript written by Parasara Maharishi in his book Parasra Samhita. Sri Parasara Maharishi had written the life history of Lord Hanuman from his birth and goes on to depict his life even after the Ramayana.
According to Parasara Maharishi, Hanuman had worshipped Surya Bhagwan (the Sun god) as his Guru and studied the Vedas and mastered the Nine Vyakarnas. Being an Aajanma Brahmachari, Lord Hanuman was not eligible to study the Nava Vyakarnas (nine grammers) for which the status of being a grihastha (married man) was essential.
In order to facilitate the completion of his education, the Trimurtis approached Surya Bhagavan and created a beautiful Kanya, Suvarchala Devi, an Aajanma Brahmacharini, from the Sun’s Kiranas (rays) and arranged a marriage with Hanumanji to make him a Grihastha without Brahmacharya being affected. Whereby he learnt and became a genius in the nine vyakaranas (sanskrit grammar). These details can be found in Parasara Samhita.
There is also a sloka called ‘Hanuman Mangalashtakam’ depicts the Lord thus and runs as follows:
suvarchalaa kalathraaya chaturbhuja dharaaya cha
ushtraa roodhaya veeraya mangalam sri hanumathe
The meaning of the above sloka is: “Salutations to Lord Hanuman, having four arms, accompanied by His consort Suvarchala Devi, seated on a camel and exhibiting extraordinary valor.”
The text further describes Suvarchala as the daughter of Sun-God, Surya, from whom Anjaneya learnt the Vedas.
At the temple at Thailavaram, the moolavar is eight feet tall. The Lord holds the customary mace in his hand that he rests on his right shoulder. His left hand is placed on his hip. The utsava moorthi of Anjaneya is with his consort Suvarchala Devi. The Lord is depicted with four arms and is descriptively called Suvarchala Devi Sametha Chaturbhuja.
Why do we apply Sindoor to Lord Hanuman?
We see in almost all Hanuman temples that the deity of Hanumanji is covered or coated with orange color sindoor. What is the story associated with applying sindoor to Lord Hanuman and what is the importance of sindoor in Hanuman puja?
One day Sita mata was wearing a red powder in the parting of her hair. Curiously Hanuman asked mata, what was the red powder that she was wearing.  Sita mata replied “Hanuman! This is sindoor. Sindoor makes Lord Rama happy and would bless him with a long and prosperous life.”
Listening to this Hanuman disappeared from the place. Hanuman came back with his body fully covered with red sindoor. He covered his entire body, even his clothes and hair with sindoor.
Lord Rama saw Hanuman covered with sindoor and asked the reason. Hanuman replied “Sita mata told me that by applying just a small pinch of sindoor on her head every day it will make you have a long and happy life. I thought if just a pinch will do so much, what will happen if I cover my entire body with sindoor.”
Thus, Lord Ram gave a boon to all his devotees that those who apply sindoor to Hanuman and observe hanuman puja with sindoor would be blessed with a long, happy life and have their wishes fulfilled.
For this reason sindoor is mixed in til (sesame) oil and applied to the entire body of Lord Hanuman. This is also called as Chola Chandana. People take back a little sindoor from Lord Hanuman as prasada and wear it on their foreheads.

Lord Hanuman and His Worship
Posted by Das Gupta | Nov 12 |IndiaDivine.Org
The story of the birth of Hanuman goes thus: Brihaspati had an attendant called Punjikasthala, who was cursed to assume the form of a female monkey — a curse that could only be nullified if she would give birth to an incarnation of Lord Shiva.
Reborn as Anjana, she performed intense austerities to please Shiva, who finally granted her the boon that would cure her of the curse.
When Agni, the god of fire, gave Dasharath, the king of Ayodhya, a bowl of sacred dessert to share among his wives so they may have divine children, an eagle snatched a part of the pudding and dropped it where Anjana was meditating, and Pavana, the god of wind delivered the drop to her outstretched hands.
After she took the divine dessert, she gave birth to Hanuman. Thus Lord Shiva incarnated as a monkey, and was born as Hanuman to Anjana, by the blessings of Pavana, who thus became Hanuman’s godfather.
The birth of Hanuman released Anjana from the curse. Before she returned to heaven, Hanuman asked his mother about his life ahead. She assured him that he would never die, and said that fruits as ripe as the rising sun would be his food. Mistaking the glowing sun as his food, the divine baby leapt for it.
Indra struck him with his thunderbolt and hurled him down to earth. But Hanuman’s godfather, Pavana carried him to the nether world or ‘Patala’. As he departed from the earth, all life panted for air, and Brahma had to beg him to return. In order to appease him they conferred a lot of boons and blessings on his foster child that made Hanuman invincible, immortal and super powerful.
Hanuman selected Surya, the sun god as his preceptor, and approached him with the request to teach the scriptures. Surya agreed and Hanuman became his disciple, but had to face his constantly moving guru by traversing the sky backwards at equal pace, while taking his lessons. Hanuman’s phenomenal concentration took him only 60 hours to master the scriptures.
Surya considered the manner in which Hanuman accomplished his studies as his tuition fees, but when Hanuman requested him to accept something more than that, the sun god asked Hanuman to assist his son Sugriva, by being his minister and compatriot.
 The Power of Devotion
The character of Hanuman teaches us of the unlimited power that lies unused within each one of us. Hanuman directed all his energies towards the worship of Lord Rama, and his undying devotion made him such that he became free from all physical fatigue. And Hanuman’s only desire was to go on serving Rama.

Hanuman perfectly exemplifies ‘Dasyabhava’ devotion — one of the nine types of devotions — that bonds the master and the servant. His greatness lies in his complete merger with his Lord, which also formed the base of his genial qualities.

It is hard to find another who is at once so powerful, learned, philosophic, humble and amusing! Hanuman features prominently in the great epics of Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Meeting with Lord Rama
Hanuman met Rama and his brother Lakshmana while Rama was in exile in the jungle, and searching for his wife Sita who was abducted by Ravana. Their quest brought them near Pampa Lake at the foot of Mount Risyamukha, where the monkey king Sugriva and his ministers were hiding.

Sugriva, who was being persecuted by his brother Bali, suspected that Rama and Lakshmana might have been sent by Bali to slay him. To find out the facts, Hanuman approached them in the guise of a Brahmin.
In Service of Lord Rama
Lord Hanuman’s initial words highly impressed Rama, and made him comment: “None can talk this way without mastering the Vedas. He has such a flawless countenance, a wonderful accent, and a captivating way of speaking.
He has the ability to move even an enemy…” After he revealed his identity as the prince of Ayodhya, Hanuman fell prostrate before him in respect of the Lord. Rama picked him up and embraced him. There began the story of Hanuman, which is inextricably interwoven with Rama, and dealt with in detail in Valmiki’sRamayana and the Tulsidas’ Ramacharitamanas.
Exciting Exploits!
To cut the long story of Hanuman short, he then introduced Rama to Sugriva, and began his massive search for Sita. Finding out her whereabouts, he consoled Sita, and burnt down the city of Lanka. Hanuman then brought Rama to Lanka, fought the battle against Ravana with his simian army, and vanquished the demons.
Hanuman’s greatest feat was saving the life of Lakshmana by fetching the life-giving herb “Sanjivani” from the Himalayas. He flew fast towards the Himalayas, but unable to recognise the right herb, picked up the whole mountain on his hand and flew back to Lanka, just in time to save Lakshmana. Thereafter Hanuman served Rama forever.
Hanuman and the Pandavas
The venerable ape also features in the great epic Mahabharata. How Hanuman met the valiant Bhima, one of the Pandava brothers is itself a marvelous tale. He recognized Bhima as his spiritual brother, since both were born with the blessings of Pavana, the Wind God, and promised to aid the Pandavas in the big battle of Kurukshetra.
Hanuman positioned himself in the flag of Arjuna’s chariot to secure and stabilize the war-craft. The triangular saffron flag of Hanuman stands for stability and equilibrium, sense-control and mind-control, and a sure sign of victory over all that is base and evil.
Blessings From All Gods
Lord Hanuman was blessed by all the Gods. Lord Brahma blessed him that no weapon of war could kill him. Brahma blessed him with the power to kill fear. Lord Hanuman is worshipped for strength. Praying to him ensures that all fears are killed. Lord Shiva blessed him with longevity.
He also blessed him with the power to cross oceans. This was the power that he used when he went to meet Sita in Lanka. Lord of the wind Vayu dev had blessed him with a boon that he can never be harmed by water. The God of fire Agni blessed Hanuman with the power that no fire can cause him any harm.
The Sun God blessed Hanuman with the power to become the biggest and the smallest in size. The Lord of Death Yama promised Hanuman that death will never come to him. Kubera the god of wealth promised Hanuman that he will always be happy. The Lord of Sex Kamdev blessed Hanuman that he will never get affected by sexual desires so he will remain a Brahmachari.
He was taught by the Sun God who taught him all the knowledge that he had. It is believed that lord Hanuman was one among those who saw lord Krishna tell Bhagwad Gita in the vishwaroop state. Lord hanuman was a great devotee of Lord Rama. He had promised Lord Rama that he will live on earth as long as people took the name of Rama.
This is exactly why Goddess Sita blessed him that his idol will be placed in all public places. This will ensure that he can hear people chanting the name of Lord Rama. Interesting that Lord Hanuman is considered immortal in Hinduism. He is said to be alive even today and that is why He is also known as cheeranjeev or the one who lives forever.
Why Orange Colour?
When you visit any town or village in India you will find many idols of Lord Hanuman. They are mostly orange in color. It is said that lord Hanuman is the only God who can help to get rid of evil spirits. Many people worship the Lord Hanuman to get blessed and to get free from evil spirits.
It is said that Lord Hanuman can remove all hurdles. People often pray to Lord Hanuman before they start a journey. You will find small idols of Hanuman in vehicles and cars. This is mainly because lord Hanuman can protect people from all trouble.
The Supreme Brahamchari
Women are not allowed to touch the idol of lord Hanuman. They can enter the temple and pray but they cannot touch the idol as he was a Brahmachari. Many modern feminists think that this is not equality with the female gender, but let us tell you that it is merely a symbolic ritual which mainly signifies that both genders (men and women) have an inherent desire which can only be overcome with great will power, meditation and Prayers and till that time, it is best to avoid too much contact with each other.
We have also published an article on the benefits of celibacy. Apart from this there is no such anti-feminism in this practice and the Lord Hanuman Himself gave equal perhaps more respect to the wife of Sri Rama than anything else.
Sri Hanuman Chalisa
There are many books and stories that are dedicated to Lord Hanuman. Devotees also chantHanuman Chalisa for getting blessed by Lord Hanuman. This book is dedicated to the Lord Hanuman. Reading it is as good as worshiping the Lord.
Here is the audio for benefit of our readers:
Mantras of Lord Hanuman
Before you do the pooja of Lord Hanuman you must worship Lord Ganesha. This is because Lord Ganesha must be the first to be offered prayer. You must offer sindoor to the idol of Lord Hanuman with the mantra:
“Aum Shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah: Gandham Samarpayami”
Then you need to offer flower now you should chant:
“Aum Shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah: Pushpam Samarpyami”
After this you must offer dhoop and chant:
“Aum shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah: Dhoopam Agrapayami”
While lighting the lamp infront of Lord Hanuman you must say:
“Aum shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah: Deepam Darshayami”
At the end you should offer gud laddus to the Lord and chant:
“Aum shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah: Naivaidyam Nivedayami”
This is the shortest and the most convenient way to please Lord Hanuman and offer a pooja. You can do this puja at your home or you can also go to a Lord Hanuman temple.
In English
Many of our readers have been putting for constant requests to put the above mantras in English. Actually we cannot translate them per-say into English but will give a brief description so that after known the meaning you can just recite the above mantras which are written in English alphabets itself
“Aum shree Ramdut Hanumate Namah” basically means that we offer our salutions to Lord Hanumana who is the messenger of Lord Rama. Samarpayami means offering so we are offering several things to the Lord in above lines such as flowers, sindoor and so on. Basically this is a form of devotional bhakti or bhakti yoga which is one of the types of yoga or a method in which one can unite with the Divine.
Days of the Lord
Although there is no day when you cannot worship Lord Hanuman, still tuesdays and saturdays are specifically dedicated as the days of Lord Hanuman. If the puja of Lord Hanuman is done on Saturday it can protect you from all evil and trouble in life. Some say that Lord Hanuman is pleased with love and devotion. If any devotee worships him with all heart they will get blessed. You can also chant the name of Ram Naam or
“Aum Shree Hanumate Namah”
for as many times as you can in a day. Lord Hanuman is also associated with Goddess Kaali. This is exactly why when you offer prayer to Goddess Kaali you are indirectly praying to Lord Hanuman too. You can also fast on this day. It is better if you worship Lord Hanuman in red clothes. Red flowers and kumkum are offered to the lord.
Overcoming Fear
Although the name of Lord Hanuman delivers from all fears, still some specific mantras you can recite are as follows
Bhoot pishach nikat nahi aave, Mahabeer jab naam sunave!
Nashe rog hare sab peera, japat nirantar Hanuman veera!!
And, another one is
Lal deh laali lase aru dhari laal lango


Shri Anjaneya Ashtottarashata Namavali: 108 Names of Anjaneya
(Editor: IndiaDivine.Org)

Lord Hanuman is the son of Vayu, the Hindu god of Wind. He was a devotee of Lord Rama. Hanuman is best known from the Indian epic Ramayana. Hanuman is considered to be an avatar (incarnation) of Lord Shiva.

Shri Hanuman, a great disciple of Sri Rama, is the symbol of devotion and dedication. Lord Hanumana is a provider of courage, hope, knowledge, intellect and devotion. Sri Hanuman, who is praised as SRI RAMA SEVA DURANDHARA or the one greatly devoted to the service of Sri Rama, is known for his extra ordinary capabilities.

He would not be universally worshipped if he were to be a mere servant. He is also bestowed with matching intelligence. He is described as the best among intelligent people and the first among the spiritual evolvers.

1. Om Anjaneyaya Namaha
2. Om Mahaviraya Namaha
3. Om Hanumate Namaha
4. Om Marutatmajaya Namaha
5. Om Tatvagyanapradaya Namaha
6. Om Sitadevimudrapradayakaya Namaha
7. Om Ashokavanakachchhetre Namaha
8. Om Sarvamayavibhananaya Namaha
9. Om Sarvabandhavimoktre Namaha
10. Om RakshovidhvaNsakarakaya Namaha
11. Om Paravidya Pariharaya Namaha
12. Om Para Shaurya Vinashakaya Namaha
13. Om Paramantra Nirakartre Namaha
14. Om Parayantra Prabhedakaya Namaha
15. Om Sarvagraha Vinashine Namaha
16. Om Bhimasena SahayakrIthe Namaha
17. Om Sarvadukhah Haraya Namaha
18. Om Sarvalokacharine Namaha
19. Om Manojavaya Namaha
20. Om Parijata Drumulasthaya Namaha
21. Om Sarva Mantra Svarupaya Namaha
22. Om Sarva Tantra Svarupine Namaha
23. Om Sarvayantratmakaya Namaha
24. Om Kapishvaraya Namaha
25. Om Mahakayaya Namaha
26. Om Sarvarogaharaya Namaha
27. Om Prabhave Namaha
28. Om Bala Siddhikaraya Namaha
29. Om Sarvavidya Sampattipradayakaya Namaha
30. Om Kapisenanayakaya Namaha
31. Om Bhavishhyathchaturananaya Namaha
32. Om Kumara Brahmacharine Namaha
33. Om Ratnakundalaya Namaha
34. Om Diptimate Namaha
35. Om Chanchaladvalasanadhaya Namaha
36. Om Lambamanashikhojvalaya Namaha
37. Om Gandharva Vidyaya Namaha
38. Om Tatvajnaya Namaha
39. Om Mahabala Parakramaya Namaha
40. Om Karagraha Vimoktre Namaha
41. Om Shrinkhala Bandhamochakaya Namaha
42. Om Sagarottarakaya Namaha
43. Om Pragyaya Namaha
44. Om Ramadutaya Namaha
45. Om Pratapavate Namaha
46. Om Vanaraya Namaha
47. Om Kesarisutaya Namaha
48. Om Sitashoka Nivarakaya Namaha
59. Om Anjanagarbha Sambhutaya Namaha
50. Om Balarkasadrashananaya Namaha
51. Om Vibhishhana Priyakaraya Namaha
52. Om Dashagriva Kulantakaya Namaha
53. Om Laxmanapranadatre Namaha
54. Om Vajra Kayaya Namaha
55. Om Mahadyuthaye Namaha
56. Om Chiranjivine Namaha
57. Om Rama Bhaktaya Namaha
58. Om Daitya Karya Vighatakaya Namaha
59. Om Akshahantre Namaha
60. Om Kajnchanabhaya Namaha
61. Om Pajnchavaktraya Namaha
62. Om Maha Tapase Namaha
63. Om Lankini Bhajnjanaya Namaha
64. Om Shrimate Namaha
65. Om Simhika Prana Bhanjanaya Namaha
66. Om Gandhamadana Shailasthaya Namaha
67. Om Lankapura Vidayakaya Namaha
68. Om Sugriva Sachivaya Namaha
69. Om Dhiraya Namaha
70. Om Shuraya Namaha
71. Om Daityakulantakaya Namaha
72. Om Suvarchalarchitaya Namaha
73. Om Tejase Namaha
74. Om Ramachudamanipradayakaya Namaha
75. Om Kamarupine Namaha
76. Om Pingalakshaya Namaha
77. Om Vardhi Mainaka Pujitaya Namaha
78. Om Kabalikrita Martanda Mandalaya Namaha
79. Om Vijitendriyaya Namaha
80. Om Ramasugriva Sandhatre Namaha
81. Om Mahiravana Mardhanaya Namaha
82. Om Sphatikabhaya Namaha
83. Om Vagadhishaya Namaha
84. Om Navavyakritapanditaya Namaha
85. Om Chaturbahave Namaha
86. Om Dinabandhuraya Namaha
87. Om Mayatmane Namaha
88. Om Bhaktavatsalaya Namaha
89. Om Sanjivananagayartha Namaha
90. Om Suchaye Namaha
91. Om Vagmine Namaha
92. Om Dridhavrataya Namaha
93. Om Kalanemi Pramathanaya Namaha
94. Om Harimarkata Markataya Namaha
95. Om Dantaya Namaha
96. Om Shantaya Namaha
97. Om Prasanatmane Namaha
98. Om Shatakantamudapahartre Namaha
99. Om Yogine Namaha
100. Om Ramakatha Lolaya Namaha
101. Om Sitanveshana Pathitaya Namaha
102. Om Vajradranushhtaya Namaha
103. Om Vajranakhaya Namaha
104. Om Rudra Virya Samudbhavaya Namaha
105. Om Indrajitprahitamoghabrahmastra Vinivarakaya Namaha
106. Om Partha Dhvajagrasamvasine Namaha
107. Om Sharapamjarabhedhakaya Namaha
108. Om Dashabahave Namaha

Hanuman Stuti
 Here is the translation of another garland of prayers to Anjaneya. Please note that this contains most of the slokas listed under Anjaneya stothra which is translated separately.
goshpadi krutha vaareesham masaki krutha rakshasam
ramayana maha mala rathnam vande anilathmajam
I pray to him who is born to the God of wind.
Who made the king of lakes look like the hoof of a cow,
Who made the great Rakshasas look like simple mosquitoes,
And who I pray to him who is born to the God of wind,
and is the great jewel in the great garland of the story of Rama.
yatra yatra raghu natha keerthanam
thathra thathra krudha masthakanjalim
bhashpa vari pari poorna lochanam
maruthim namatha rakshasanthakam
I pray and salute the son of wind god,
Who brought to end the rakshasas,
Who is always present with eye full of tears,
With head bowed in veneration,
Wherever the praise of Lord Rama is sung
anjaneya mati patalananam
kanchanadri kamaneeya vigraham
parijatha tharu moola vasinam
bhavayami bhava maana nandanam
I bow before the darling son of the god of wind,
Who is the son of Anjana,
Who is great among killers of ogres,
Who is like a golden mountain,
Who is handsome to look at,
And who lives near the roots of Parijatha tree,
mano javam maruta thulya vegam
jithendriyam buddhi matham varishtam
vatha atmajam vanara yudha mukhyam
sree rama dootham sirasa namami
I bow my head and salute the emissary of Rama,
Who has won over his mind,
Who has similar speed as wind,
Who has mastery over his organs,
Who is the greatest among knowledgeable,
Who is the son of God of wind,
And who is the chief in the army of monkeys
budhir balam yaso dhairyam nirbhayathwam arokadha
ajadyam vak paduthwancha hanumath smaranath bhaveth
He who meditates on Lord Hanuman,
Would be blessed with knowledge, strength,
Fame, courage, fearlessness, health,
Tirelessness and mastery over words
anjananandanam veeram janaki soka nasanam
kapeesam aksha hantharam vande lank bhayangaram
My salutation to the terror of Lanka,
Who is the darling baby of Anjana,
Who is killer of all sorrows of Janaki,
Who is the god of all monkeys,
A Hanuman Temple in Bhubaneswar with 108 Deities
Posted by The Editor | Apr 03, 2016 | 
Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, surprised the entire world as he revealed to Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, that once he was advised by the founder of Apple, Steve Jobs, to visit Hanuman Temple of Kainchi Dham in the state of Uttarakhand.  It also sprang a surprise, when the nation came to know that President of America, Barrack Obama, carried around a statue of Hanuman in his pocket.
“Sri Hanuman was gifted with a boon by Lord Rama that he would get countless bodies in Kaliyuga. This has come true as the temple city has countless places of worships of Hanuman. Literally, a new temple comes up with the construction of every new colony. But the temple at Unit-I behind the daily market in Bhubaneswar is really exceptional. In the last decades, hundreds of thousands of devotees have come to admit that it is the real abode of Sri Hanuman”-says Asim Kanungo- a retired Executive Engineer, who was one of the founder members of the temple in the early eighties.
The year 1997 marked a beginning for the temple as 108 idols of Hanuman were established by the living saint in the temple – Rama Baba. The place is frequented by almost all the celebrities, politicians, and other dignitaries. Dr. Achyuta Samanata, the founder of KIITS University, is among the regular visitors of the shrine for a long period of time.
As there is abiding faith that reciting Hanuman Chalisa is immensely beneficial for one and all, one gets 108 times better results after reciting the same prayer once before the 108 idols of Him. Scriptures have forever laid emphasis on the number 108 as a means of regular practice in worship. Regular prayer before the 108 idols of Sri Hanuman assures protection from calamities and prosperity in life. As the God is familiar everywhere for His other name “Sankata Mochana”, the temple with the 108 idols has acquired considerable fame in the last two decades.
Although, this shrine of God came up in early eighties by the initiatives of handful of people, it got reputation in a short period of time. Growing by leaps and bounds under the patronage of living legendary saint, Sri Rama Das, the place has now the distinction of being the most outstanding place for worship of Hanuman.
“Unlike the other famous temples of Anjenaya, the distinction of this temple has stayed in the fact that it has stayed away from commercialism right from its inception. You do not find long queue of shops, selling lockets, photos, and key-rings of God before this temple in the din of loudspeaker and voices of people. Moreover, the silence inside the temple is remarkable, where you can sit before the 108 idols with your eyes closed, praying from the bottom of your heart.
Invariably, He responds to the prayer of people as most of the devotees turn up with smiles of their faces, citing their difficulties as solved. Even in the fervors of festivals like Rama Navami and Hanuman Jayanti, you find a large crowd of devotees but over the years, not a single untoward incident has taken place. Even in the days of festivities, the authorities in the temple do not take the help of Police as everything moves smoothly under the control of Lord”-Says Parshuram Dash- an ardent devotee and resident of Unit-1 colony.


In Hanuman Chalisa, it is said :

"Yug sahasra yojan par Bhanu! Leelyo taahi madhur phal janu!!

1 Yug = 12000  divine years
1 Sahasra = 1000
1 Yojan = 8 Miles

Yug x Sahasra x Yojan = par Bhanu
12000 x 1000 x 8 miles = 96,000,000 miles

1 mile = 1.6kms

96,000,000 miles x 1.6kms = 
1,536,000,000 kms /96,000,000 miles to Sun

NASA says that, it is the exact distance between Earth and Sun (Bhanu).  That proves Hanuman   did jump to Planet Sun, thinking it as a sweet fruit (Madhur phal). It is really interesting how accurate and meaningful our ancient scriptures are. Unfortunately, it is hardly recognized or interpreted accurately or realized by any country in today’s world. 

How one Yuga=12000 Divine Years?

[The duration of ther univese was fixed by theSupreme as 12000 years  each of which was 360 humna years so that the whole period is 4320000 human years. This durationwas divided into four ages which are 4000, 3000, 2000 and 1000 respectively for Krita, Treta. Dvapara and Kali.After each yuga there is period of darkness. This wasa 800, 600, 400 and 200 respectively. All together10000+2000 makes 12000 divine Years; 1 kalpa=4320000x1000=4320000000. Brahman is compared to a mystic bull with 4horns, 3 feet 2 heads band 7 tongues taht 4 3 2 and 7 zeros represented in 4-3-2-0000000 ]
  1. T. K. Mahadevan, Concept of Hinduism, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India.
  2. Anant Pai, Tales of Hanuman, Amar Chitra Katha, Mumbai, India.
  3. Louis M Fernandes, Mahiravana, Amar Chitra Katha, Mumbai, India.
  4. Devdutt Patnaik, Vishnu, Vakils, Feffer and Simons Ltd., Mumbai, India.
  5. Ramakrishna Math, Hanuman Chalisa, Chennai 600004, India.
  6. Dr. S.K. Ramachndra Rao, Vishnu Kosha, Kalpataru Research Academy, Bangalore, India.
  7. Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda in Kannada Language.
  8. C. Rajagopalachri, Ramayana, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India.
  9. Devdutt Pattanaik, Devi, Vakils, Feffer and Simons Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India.
  10. Valmiki Ramayana, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, U.P., India
  11. Various other Ramayanas
  12.  Jagadguru  Chandrasekharendra Saraswati, Dharma, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India.