Monday, September 3, 2012

VISUALIZING DIVINITY IN NUMBERS....


Visualizing the Divinity in Numbers……
(DISCOURSE BY N.R. SRINIVASAN, SEPTEMBER 2012)
The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India (Bharatvarsaha of Sanatana dharma was rechristened India by outsiders). The idea seems so simple now-a-days that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventors”—a French Mathematician so glorified our sages including Aryabhatta who completed the task by discovering zero “0” inspired by the word soonyam  which is Poojyam as addition  to  the existing numbers “1 to 9 hidden in the words sata (sata Rudreeyam), sahasra (Vishnu sahasranaama) and Kotisoorya.
Hindu way of life is so knitted with the religion that spiritually motivated Hindus cannot think anything other than divine for things that fascinates our lives—the amazing numbers. As a Hindu I am bound to think these numbers are also of divine origin and divine directed for the benefit of mankind, for without these numbers no scientific advancement was ever possible including the latest computer science. The origin of 1 (Ekah) comes from Purusha (Saguna Brashman) glorified as “Tadekam” (that one). Then Prakriti or Sakti joined Saguna Brahman to start the work on creation and declared Supreme Principle as adviteeya who is unfathomable. Thus came number 2 (Dvau).  Sanskrit grammar is the only  grammar  that talks about dual number (dvivachana).Then appeared Trigunas as Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. We all know creation started when they got intermixed, manifested as Brahma, Vishnu and Siva for Creation, Preservation and Destruction. This should have been the origin of 3 (trayah).   Then emerged the four Vedas (Chaturvedas)     spreading their wisdom in all four directions (Chaturdisaah) through courtesy Chaturmukha Brahma. That should have brought the symbol of 4 (Chatvaarah)in the divine language. Then Panchabhoota elements were created the principle materials in all creations bringing the Symbol of 5. Then was the appearance of the six headed Supreme Intelligence (Shanmukha) necessary for human creativity giving scope of the first perfect number known to Mathematics today. That should have been the inspiration for 6 (shat). Also the descent of sixth incarnation of Parsurma, at once perfect intelligence in fully developed human form took place.  Then Saptarishis appeared on the scene.  That was for the symbol of 7 (Sapta), with the task of developing humanity. Then the divine guards on duty as Ashta Dikpalakas were created who contributed to the symbol 8 (Ashta).   Gazing at the stars   and planets our wise sages recognized Navagrahas that shaped the destinies of human lives by their influence. That revealed the symbol 9 (nava). Sages then did not know where and how to proceed further.  
They heard the unfathomable Nirguna Brahman as 0 for he was at once Soonya and Poorna who gave them rhytam orderliness and showed them how to multiply or increase or decrease to be revealed later. However Rishis did not know who that was, how large or how small. They addressed that as anoraneeyaan mahatoe maheeyaan--smaller than the smallest bigger than the biggest. As we all know 0 gave the place value in rhytam which again is the Vyahriti of Brahman the Absolute. Anything multiplied by 0 is 0 but the zero itself is not affected (meaning that gets absolved in zero) reminding the mantra “Poornamadah Poornamidam”-- IT is full everywhere and whatever way you look at IT.
 Bhaskaracharya was the first mathematician to reveal to the world the intimate relationship between “sunya” and “ananthaha”, between Zero and Infinity. Any quantity divided by “sunya” is equal to Infinity, he said. Take a value like 16 and divide it (“haraha”) with progressively decreasing divisors. What happens? The quotient progressively enlarges. For e.g. 16 divided by 4 = 4; and 16 divided by 2 = 8; and eventually when 16 is divided by 0 it equals “Infinity!” Every quantity, every value in the world, when divided by “sunya”, results in the same quotient or result viz. Infinity, “ananthaha”
Such is the mighty power of Zero that it can raise and relate all values on earth to the exalted state of Infinity – that very same state in which God Almighty, the Vishnu of the sacred “Sahasranama”, is said to eternally reside and rule!

 One set of children of Abraham visualized God completed his perfection of creation in six days.   The other children of Abraham took away these numbers to their land and wanted to enrich their knowledge. They too did not know how to proceed further. They called them Arabic numbers and revealed to the world as their own.

It was left to Aryabhatta much later to visualize the Absolute symbol Soonyam (0) and his handy-work. It was so holy they called it Poojyam too. That was Nirguna Brahman. By its rhythmic movement it could be smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest—anoraneeyaan mahatoe maheeyaan. Seeing Nirguna Brahman 0, on the right side of Saguna Brahman Aryabhatta could visualize  this increased   appearance manifold  as (dasa) increasing its face value. This is its first place   value.  Hindus circumambulate clockwise to face the deity right always. When Saguna Brahman symbol appeared with two Nirguna Brahman symbols to the right   it got the place value as (sata) and so on. He then got the other place values for 1 as well as other eight   absolute value symbols in the series.  Probably this dasa gave inspiration to celebrate Dasavatara in Puranas whichincluded in it the first-ever perfect human being as Parasurama Avatar: indeed is the first perfect number. Aryabhatta also recognized Sakti as dot (Bindu) as in Srichakra (.). When this Sakti appeared on the left hand side of (Saguna Brahman) its power diminished by dasa amsa. This seems to be the origin of modern day decimal (dasaamsa) system. Amazingly when Bindi appeared to the left of Nirguna Brahman (0) its face value did not get disturbed at all. One Bindu is the smallest particle. With two dots, line starts building up that can lead to infinity.  With two dots below in series and one above stars the geometric configuration found in Srichakra. Agnichayana the most basic Vedic sacrifice used a fire altar defined by the squares of seven lengths of the sacrificer. Four equal parts of the area define body, one each the two wings and the tail. This paved the way for solid geometric figures.

The interesting thing is the word symbols ekah, dvau, trayah, chatwaarah….dasah, satah, sahasrah, koti etc. existed long before the start of present civilization in Hindu scriptures inspiring people to invent the science of Mathematics which has to-day landed us in the amazing computer science. Vedas say Brahman is Samvatsarah (Year)—Samvatsarh sa esha Purushah (Purusha is Samvatara), Kaala (time), Aksharah (letter)—Om ityekaaksharam (Om is the one letter that is Brahman) etc.  By the same analogy Brahman could be Sankhya (number) too. 
Why do we invariably run to temple to a sponsor Ashtotttara Puja when we are in trouble or when we do not wish to part with SREYAS (santosha) though we know it is only temporary unlike PREYAS which is Eternal Bliss (Aannda). Based on my little knowledge of astronomy I thought the distance of the Sun from earth divided by the diameter of the Sun is 108 approximately. Also Vishnu Sahasranama contains 108 slokas which can be called 108 mantras.  There is a saying in Sanskrit Trivaaaram Satyam (that which is a said thrice is true). In the court of law we declare repeating thrice---I shall speak the truth, the whole truth and nothing but truth. We repeat Shanti thrice. 108 is 36 times 3; 1008 is 336 times 3 and 100008 is 33336 times 3. This is the basis of Sahsranaama archana and Lakshaarchana. They all are based on holy number 3. I also thought why Christianity says that God created the world in six days. Six is the first perfect number and therefore God decided to finish his perfect handy-work in six days.  It is also customary in Hinduism to chant the name of the Lord 3, 10, 28, 108. You know the significance of 1 and 3. Ten is symbolic of the first four numbers viewed together--1, 2, 3, and 4. (1+2+3+4=10). 28 is the next perfect number after 6 which we employ to glorify the first perfect number 6 which is divine. It should not be forgotten that Sanskrit language was the first to give the concept of number and systematic nomenclature.
In North India people think odd numbers are auspicious and signify continuity. Therefore while offering dakshina (money) to priests they always give 11, 101 etc.  The holy numbers 1 and 3 should have motivated them to think so.  Even numbers can be equally divided and therefore the act is final in dividing. Odd numbers always leave behind 1 while equally dividing.  1 signifies Purusha as odd number which stands out as though it can't be touched and unique and takes care of continuity.  Why are 1 and 3 sacred?  1 is always Sadguna Brahman. 3 is always 1+1+1 when equally divided and again points to Sadguna Brahman.  Hence there is special significance to 1 and 3, as very sacred. Hence all odd numbers are divine.  Hindus bow to Durga once as she is primordial; other deities thrice. This is because of special significance for one and three. They also consider even numbers are inauspicious and show final act and so offer to priest after cremation as dakshina (money) in even numbers like 10, 100 etc. Pythagoras and Einstein too talked about mysticism of numbers.
 Lord Krishna said in Bhagavadgeeta "Yoe maam pasyati sarvatra sarvam cha mayi pasyati | tasyaam na pranasyaami sa cha may na pransyati || (6-30)-- Those who perceive Me in everything and behold everything in Me, are not separated from Me, and I am not separated from them.
Influenced by these divine thoughts on numbers I started analyzing odd and even numbers in Chamakam. I therefore made bold to post the discourse on the Blog <nrsrini.blogspot.com>: “What do Odd and Even numbers in Chamakam signify? "" The other discourse “Words Identified with Numbers in Hindu Scriptures” should also interest all religious and spiritual thinkers. 


 APPENDIX

Why Lord Vishnu is Called as Shunyah or Zero in the Vishnu Sahasranama?
Posted by M.K. Sudarshan | Apr 20, 2016  | IndiaDivine.Org
 One of the “namas” in the Sahasranamam that I’m always intrigued by is the name “shunyah” given to Vishnu, which appears in sloka No. 79:
suvarnavarno hemango varangas chandhanangadhi
viraha vishamaha sunyo grithasirachalaschalaha
The Sanskrit word “sunya” means “zero”, “nullity”, “cipher”, “emptiness”.
It would strike anyone as extremely odd that the Sahasranamam should choose to call Lord Vishnu as Zero! You can understand God being called “ekaha”, the One Supreme Being. The essence of all monistic theism lies in the belief that God is One (the Upanishad says, “sayaschayam purushe; yaschasavadhithye; sa ekaha”).
You can understand too God being addressed as “ananthaha” the Infinite, as in the Sahasranamam stanza 70:
kamadhevaha kamapalaha kami kanthaha krithagamaha
anirdhesya vapurvishnuhu viro ‘nantho dhananjayaha
Since God is Immeasurable it seems plainly alright to name Him “ananthaha” the Infinite. But how is one to explain hailing the Almighty as “shunyah” the Cipher?
There is a view that “If Infinity is immeasurable, so is Zero”. Mathematically speaking, one could define zero to be anti-infinity. If “Infinity” is immeasurable plenitude, “Zero” is immeasurable emptiness. If you were to imagine, say, an interminable series of values, from zero to infinity, floating somewhere out there in endless space, then, surely, Zero would be at one end of it while Infinity would be found at the other end, wherever, that is, the two ends may be found, if at all. And if you reflect upon it deeply, that would make out “Zero” and “Infinity” to be two sides of the same un-graspable coin.
By the same logic, you might say the Sanskrit “ananthaha” and “shunyah” might seem antonymous but in reality they mean the same thing. Hailing God Almighty as “Lord Infinity” is hence no different from hailing Him “Lord Zero”.
Incredible logic notwithstanding, we know for a fact however that the “Infinite” and the “Cipher” are never really the same thing. None of us would be willing to exchange one for the other if it came to a real choice between the two. If I go up, for instance, to a venerable “acharya” or “guru” and prostrate at his feet, I would expect him to shower his benediction upon me saying, “May you be blessed in life, my son, with Gods infinite Grace!” If instead the man were to say, “May Gods zero grace be thine in life!”, the blessing would stand transformed into a vicious curse, wouldn’t it?
So then, why is God, who is Infinite Being, being called “sunya”, a Zero – the very opposite of infinity? The traditional commentators of the Vishnu-Sahasranamam offer us some explanation in their respective “bhashyas”.
Let us take up Adhi Sankara’s “Sahasranama bhashya ” first.
In his commentary, Sri Sankara (6th CE) explains “sunya” as an apt “nama for God, the Supreme Brahman, who is “nirguna ” – i.e. the Being who is totally devoid of any qualities or attributes. In other words, according to Sankaras school of metaphysics, God is “guna sunyan”.
According to this explanation, God transcends all attributes. His qualities like omnipotence, omniscience etc. only serve to help us in ascertaining His reality but they do not “per se” define Him. The truth of Gods existence cannot be grasped by us with reference to His qualities or “guna” alone, says Sankara. Brahman is to be apprehended as an Absolute Being who stands far apart from and quite beyond any of His infinitely (“ananthaha”) great qualities – i.e. He is “nirguna brahman”, a Being without qualities, a Being with “zero” qualities. Hence it is fit to call Him “shunyah”
Let us turn to the other explanation found in the commentary of Sri Parashara Bhattar (11th CE) on the Vishnu Sahasranamam titled “bhagavadh guna dharpanam”.
Bhattar explains “shunyah” in the typical way of the school of Visishtadvaitha theology. According to this school, God is the Supreme Abode of all auspicious attributes. The Almighty is full of innumerable good qualities like “gny+an+a”, “bala”, “aiswarya”, “virya”, “shakthi” and “thejas”. In Visishtadvaitha, God is “ananthakalyana guna ganan+” (to use a famous expression of Sri Ramanujacharya) – i.e. Brahman is Being with Infinite Number of Happy and Wholesome Attributes. The theology next states that God, by corollary, is also totally devoid of inauspicious, un-wholesome or negative qualities.
According to Bhattar, in so far as, Brahman is replete with infinitely good attributes, He is to be known as “ananthaha”. And in so far as He is absolutely bereft of defective qualities, He is to be known as the God of “zero-defects” – in other words, He is “shunyah”.
From a purely theological standpoint both explanations above are equally valid and wholly satisfying (depending, of course, upon which school of Vedanta – Sankaras or Ramanujas – one is predisposed towards). All the same, for one who is not steeped in the various nuances and niceties of Vedantic theology, (especially for one who cannot really appreciate the technical difference between the metaphysical “nirguna” and “savisesha” Brahman), the explanations of Adhi Sankara and Parashara Bhattar for “sunya” might only seem to resemble the case of the proverbial bottle that got described as “half-empty” by one and “half-full” by another.
Even leaving theological considerations aside, one can still regard Zero to be a remarkably apt “nama” for the Almighty. Common knowledge of the world around us reveals how all-powerful the concept of Zero, “sunya”, truly is. When we look at the history of Zero, we realize why “sunya” is almighty indeed!
Until about 1500 years ago nobody in the world outside India could count numbers beyond 9 without enormous difficulty. The entire Greco-Roman Western world knew nothing about the Hindu-Arabic system of numerals that prevails in the entire world today. The Romans depended upon alphabets to denote numbers – such as I, X and C or with V, L and D. In their system the number 32 had to be written, for example, as XXXII but writing a number like 3200 or 32000 for the Greeks and Romans presented a huge, often insurmountable problem! For several centuries the Greco-Roman civilization struggled with this cumbersome system of numbering. It was the principal reason why for almost a thousand years Western mathematics hardly advanced beyond being a method of elementary counting and mensuration using crude devices like the abacus. The Greeks and Romans had no knowledge of how to deal with large numbers, ratios, series, complex algebraic functions and calculations – all child’s play for any high-school student today. Western thought simply stagnated for ages since it could just not grapple with the mathematical problem of large numbers and calculations.
Somewhere between 1000 and 1200 AD, the Western world came in contact with the Arab world and that was when the Hindu-Arabic system of numerals opened the eyes of the Europeans to a whole new world of mathematical thought.
The Arabs had for long borrowed and been using the Hindu system of numerals that had been in use in ancient India for more than a thousand years earlier. The Hindu system did not use alphabets but a simple but versatile scheme of numeric symbols starting from “Zero” – the famous “sunya” – and ending with 9. These symbolic numerals made it so easy to represent and calculate numerate values anywhere from zero to infinity in quick time. They enabled complex functions and calculations. They made it possible to represent the most formidable series of values by a mere formula which in turn facilitated further complex mathematical functions! The Western world realized – for the first time ever – the power of the Hindu numeral system: a power that became the inspiration for all the mathematical advancements to later come out of Europe: algebra, ratios, surds, functions such as squares, cube and root, series and progressions, logarithmic tables, quadratic equations… and so on and so forth.
It was the power of Zero, “Sunya”, indeed, that made the European Renaissance possible – the Renaissance that eventually gave birth to all the wonderful discoveries of modern mathematics such as Fibonacci’s series, Pascal’s Probability theory and even Newton’s Calculus! “The concept of Zero unleashed something more profound than just an enhanced method of counting and calculating”. Zero revolutionized the old modes of human thought. It meant firstly people could use only ten digits, from 0 to 9, to perform every conceivable calculation and to write any conceivable number. Secondly, it opened up a whole new world of possibilities for abstract human thinking that had been simply unthinkable before!
How did the ancient Hindus discover such a powerful concept as “sunya” while the rest of the world remained ignorant of “Zero” for ages?
To grasp the concept of “sunya” required a very high level of intellectual and spiritual advancement as what prevailed in India during and after the Vedic period. As the English philosopher, A. N. Whitehead wrote: “The point about zero is that we do not need to use it in the operations of daily life. No one goes out to buy zero fish or eggs. (But) It is in a way the most civilized of all the cardinals, and its use is only forced on us by the needs of cultivated modes of thought”. Vedic mathematics and astronomy of those ancient times clearly bear evidence to the highly sophisticated conceptual and ideological skills that our Indian forbears possessed. There was no doubt at all that the ancient Vedic Indians who gave to the whole world the idea of “sunya” were indeed masters of the most civilized and “cultivated modes of thought”.
There was a great mathematician in India who lived in the 10th century CE, He was Bhaskaracharya. He wrote several pioneering treatises (in Sanskrit) on Vedic mathematics. In one of the treatises, it is said, he wrote a small dedication: “To the Supreme Brahman, who is Infinity, I offer my salutation”.  Bhaskaracharya used the Sanskrit word “khahara” to denote God as “Infinity” in the dedication. It is derived from “kham” which means “Zero” and “hara” meaning “divided”. The word “khahara” was meant to indicate that God who is Infinity is related to Zero.
Bhaskaracharya was the first mathematician to reveal to the world the intimate relationship between “sunya” and “ananthaha”, between Zero and Infinity. Any quantity divided by “sunya” is equal to Infinity, he said. Take a value like 16 and divide it (“haraha”) with progressively decreasing divisors. What happens? The quotient progressively enlarges. For e.g. 16 divided by 4 = 4; and 16 divided by 2 = 8; and eventually when 16 is divided by 0 it equals “Infinity!” Every quantity, every value in the world, when divided by “sunya”, results in the same quotient or result viz. Infinity, “ananthaha”
Such is the mighty power of Zero that it can raise and relate all values on earth to the exalted state of Infinity – that very same state in which God Almighty, the Vishnu of the sacred “Sahasranama”, is said to eternally reside and rule!

 


 WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH NUMBERS IN HINDU SCRIPTURES

 

(PREPARED BY N.R. SRINIVASAN, NOVEMBER 2012)  


INTRODUCTION

The Chamakam portion of Sri Rudram concludes with a prayer mantra of odd and even series of numbers without explaining the spiritual significance contained in them. The odd series begins 1, 3, 5 etc. and end with 33. The even series begins with 4, 8, 12 etc. and end with 48.  We come across in Hindu Scriptures several words associated with numbers associated with important divine and Vedanta concepts. To the intuitive seekers of Brahman these sacred  numbers offer  many opportunities to meditate upon and realize the hidden symbolism as seen in Chamakam,  symbol OM (3 letters word of A, U and M), Panchaaksharee, Ashtaaksharee Mantras etc. An attempt has been made to collect all such words and explain them from Hindu scriptural and Puranic perspective.  As you all aware the modern numbers and their decimal concept originated from ancient Rishis of India who have made significant contribution to science and technology as we have learnt earlier. Hindu scriptures are so vast and varied in several languages that this list is neither exhaustive nor  complete.

ZERO

Bhaskaracharya was the first mathematician to reveal to the world the intimate relationship between “sunya” and “ananthaha”, between Zero and Infinity. Any quantity divided by “sunya” is equal to Infinity, he said. Take a value like 16 and divide it (“haraha”) with progressively decreasing divisors. What happens? The quotient progressively enlarges. For e.g. 16 divided by 4 = 4; and 16 divided by 2 = 8; and eventually when 16 is divided by 0 it equals “Infinity!” Every quantity, every value in the world, when divided by “sunya”, results in the same quotient or result viz. Infinity, “ananthaha”

Such is the mighty power of Zero that it can raise and relate all values on earth to the exalted state of Infinity – that very same state in which God Almighty, the Vishnu of the sacred “Sahasranama”, is said to eternally reside and rule!

ONE

Prakriti- The one and the only material cause for the entire universe.
Ekaaksharam: “OM” Om ithi Eakasharam--(Narayanopanishad)
Tadekam: Brahman (eko viprah bahudaa vadanti—Vedas)

TWO
ASWINI DEWAS: two in numbers.

STATE OF DUALITY—Purusha(Saguna Brahman)  and Prakriti (Nature)

AJNAANAS: Our mind is covered by two power’s of Ignorance ( Ajnana). They are Aavarana and Vikshepa. Aavarana covers Jiva’s real nature and causes samsaara. Vikshepa is responsible for all creation starting with Aakasa.

ITIHAASAS (2): Ramayana and Mahabharatha.  They have been created –written - during the life time of the Characters in them and also obtained the approval of the Main characters in them- for their authenticity.

 SPIRITUAL PATHS (2): Pravritti Maarga; Nrivitti Maarga

THREE
TRINITIES: Brahmma; Vishnu; Siva

TRYAMBAKA: Three eyed Lord Siva [his three eyes are Soorya, Chandra and Agni]; ambaka means father—Creator of Trinities; Amba also means three Mothers; Creator of three Saktis- Mahaasarasvati, Mahaakaali, Mahaalakshmi

TRIKAALAAGNIKAALA: Rudra who is the basis of the three periods of time which are like fire

SAKTIS: Saraswathi; Lakshmi; Parvati  

AVASTHAATRAYA (STATES): Jagrati; Swapna; Sushupthi  

GUNATRAYA: Satva Guna;  Rajo Guna; Tamo Guna   

DOSHATRAYA: 3 causes for ailments in Ayurveda:  Vaata; Pittha; Kapha  

PRAYERS FOR SHANTI: Aadhi Deivika; Aadhi Bhoutika; Aadhyaatmika   ( Hindu Prayers end with repetition of the word Shanti three times.)

PRASTHAANA THRAYEE; Upanishad; Brahma Sutras; Bhagavadgeetaa         

SACRIFICIAL FIRES: Grahapatya(Rigveda), Anvahaarya (Yajuveda) and Aavahaneeya (Saamaveda)—Three sacrificial fires.

TRIDAAHITAM: Brahman incarnated in three forms—Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.

TRISAMAN:  Ratantra (Rigveda), Vaamaddeva (Yajurveda) and Brihat (Saamaveda)—three Samans (Divine songs) in Yajnas (Samans are divine songs)

TRIPAADA (FORMS OF SUPREME PRINCIPLE): Bhogyasthan (the object of experience); Bhogasthan (the place of experience); Bhogopakaransthan (Instrument of experience)  
[tripaadasya amritam divi—Purushasookta]

TRIPURAANTAKA: Rudra who burnt the city of three demons

3 SOURCES OF FIRES; Soorya (Sun); Soma (Moon); and Agni (fire)

VEDA SWARAS (TONES); Udatta; Anudatta; Svarita  

NAADEES (NERVES CHANNELS): Ida; Pingala and Sushumna

AAKAASAS (SPACES): Mahaakaasa (Outer space);Chittaakaasa (Mental Space); Chidaakaasa (Knowledge Space)

SAREERAS (BODIES): Sthoola sareera (gross body); Sooksma Sareera (subtle body); Kaarana sareera (casual Body)

CYCLIC RHYTHM (ORDERLINESS): Creation (Srishthi), Preservation (Sthiti) and Destruction (Laya)

AUM—Mystic symbol representing Brahman containing 3 letters A, U and M signifying Wakeful state, Dream State and Deep-sleep state.

THRIKAALA (THREE TIMES)—Past (bhoota); Present (Prasthuta or Vartamaana) and Future (Bhavishya)

TRILOKAS: Bhur (Earth or mortal); Bhuvah (celestial) and Suvah (Heaven or world of Gods)

DA, DA, DA (3DAs): Dama (forbearance), Daana (Charity) and Dayaa (compassion)


FOUR

CHATURVEDAS: Rig- Yajur- Saama - Atharva

MAHAA VAAKYAAS (FOUR): Rigveda-Praajnam Brahma; Yajurveda—Aham Brahmaasmi; Saamaveda--Tat  Tvam Aci; Atharvaveda—Ayam Aaatmaaa Brahma

UPA-ANGAS (4): Mimamsa; Nyaaya;  Puraana; Dharmasaastra

ANTAHKARANAS (4)—Mind; Intellect; Consciousness; Ego

CHATURYUGAS: Kritha; Treta; Dwaapara; Kali  

VARNAASRAMAS (4): Brahmmacharya; Gruhastha; Vaanaprastha; Sanyasa  

VEDASAAKHAS (BRANCHES OF VEDAS) Samhitha; Brahmmana; Aaranyaka; Upanishad    

VARNAS: Brahmana; Kshatriya; Vysya; and Sudra  

 UPA-VEDAANGAS: Mimamsa; Nyaya; Puranas; Dharma Sastras

UPA-VEDAS: Ayurveda; Dhanurveda; Artha Sastra; Gandharva Veda 

PURUSHAARTHAS: Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha  

YOGA MAARGAS: Bhaktiyoga; Karmayoga; Raajayoga and Jnaanayoga

TANTRAS: Saama; Daana; Bheda; Danda

CHATURVYUHA: Vasudeva (Chitta or Mind-stuff), Sankarshana (Egoity), Pradyumna (Intellect) and Aniruddha (Mind). They represent cosmic psychological evolution.

HINDU ANCIENT MILITIA (SENAADALA): Ratha, Gaja, Turaga and Padaati

CHATURBAAHU: Vishnu with Conch, Disc, Mace and Lotus in his hands

CHATURDAMSHTRAH:  Narasimha with four canine teeth on his lion face

CHATVAARAATMAH OR CHATURAATMAAH: Vishnu who is   Bharta(Creator), Bhokta (Sustainer), Mahesvara (Destroyer) and Paramaatman (Supreme Lord); One whose Vibhuties (Glories)  are waking (Jagriti) state, dream (Svapna) state, deep sleep (Sushumna) state and bliss (Tureeya)  state. Vishnu himself is Tureeyaateetha (beyond these four states); One who is responsible for the four aspects of our inner equipments—Antahkarana (Chitta, Ahankaara, Manas and Buddhi)

CHATURASRAH: Vishnu--One who gives a fair deal to all like a square which has all four sides   equal

CHATURGATIH: Vishnu who is the ultimate goal of all with different pursuits-Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Soodra; or one who is the ultimate goal  in all stages of one’s life- Brahmacharya, Grihasta, Vaanaprasta and Sanyaasa

CHATURBHAAVAH: Vishnu the source of four Purushaarthas; Dharma, Artha, Kaama  and Moksha

CHATUR –MOORTIH: Vishnu, the four formed. His manifestation in this world takes four forms.
In Microcosmic Form—the Waker (Visva);  the Dreamer (Taijasa); the Deep Sleeper (Praajna); the Pure Self (Tureeya). In Macro Cosmic Form—Viraat (Gross body; Hiranyagarbha (Subtle body); Eaasvara (Casual Body); Paramaatman (Beyond all these bodies, that is Eternal)

SAADHANA CHATUSHTAYA: Viveka, Vairaagya, Samadhi, Mumukshatva

CHARDHAM—Badrinath, Puri,  Dvaarakaa and Ramesvaram
 

 FIVE
PANCHATVAS, PANCHBHOOTAS (ELEMENTS): Space, Air, Water, Earth and Fire

PANCHA MAHAA YAJNAS: BrahmaYajna; Pitru Yajna; Deva Yajna; Bhoota Yajna; Atithi Yajna

PANCHAAYATANA POOJA—Ambika, Siva, Vishnu, Ganesha, Aaditya

TANMAATRAS: Sound, Touch, Flavor, Smell and Form

JNAANA INDRIYAS (SENSE ORGANS): Ear, Skin, Tongue, Nose and Eye  

KARMENDRIYAS (MOTOR ORGANS): Mouth (Vaak), Paani, Paada, Paayu and Upastha.   

PANCHAGAVYA: Dung, Urine, Ghee, Milk, Curd (all ingredients from one cow)

PANCHAPRAANAS: Praana,  Apaana, Vyaana, Udaana and Samaana  

PANCHAKOSAS (FIVE SHEATHS): Annamaya; Praanamaya; Manomaya; Vignaanamaya; Aanandamaya    

PANCHAANGA ALMANAC: Vaasara (day);   Tithi, Nakshatra (Star), Yoga, Karana

PANCHAANANA OR PANCHABRAHMA: Sadyojaata; Vaamadeva; Aghora; Tatpurusha; Mahaadeva (refers to Rudra)

MAHAA YAJNAS (5): Deva Yajna; Bhoota Yajna; Pitru Yajna; Brahma Yajna; Manushya Yajna

PANCHA SAMVATSARAS: Samvatsara; Parivatsara; Idaavatsara; Idvatsara; Iduvatsara

PANCHA MAHAA-PATAKAS (FIVE HENIOUS CRIMES): Brahmahatya (killing a scholar); Brunahatyaa (killing the fetus); Veerahatya (annihilation of the valorous being); Cohabitation with preceptor’s wife; Drinking alcohol

PANCHAAKSAREE—Vedic mantra-“Namah Sivaaya”

PANCHARAATRA—Para (Supreme); Vyuha (Emanations); Vibhava(Incarnation); Archa (icon); Antaryamin (inner-self). These are the five aspects of Paancharaatra.

PANCHAAYATANA GODS: Saivites reckon five Gods as Siva,  Vishnu, Durga, Soorya and Ganesha. [Vaishnavas reckon five Gods in a group as: Vishvaksena, Sanaka, Sanandana,  Sanaatana and Santkumaara]

FIVE VEDIC PRONOUNCEMENTS: Upakrama, Upasamhara, Abhyasa, Apurvata, Phala, Arthavaada are the five ways to determine the Vedic pronouncement. i.e Beginning of the work, concluding of the work, practice, idea mentioned for the first time, benefit/result, treating the matter as subject of the work  respectively.

PANCHA KARTAVYA (FIVE DUTIES OF A BRAHMIN):   Yaachanam, Adhyayanam, Adhyaapanam, Daanam and Pratigraham. 

PANCHA KARMAS: Nishiddaha (Forbidden) Karma—telling lies, killing etc; Praayaschitta Karma;
Kaamya (desire oriented) Karma (Putrakaameshti, Jyothishtoma etc.); Nithya Karma (Sandhya vandanam, Japa, Aaraadhana etc) : Naimittika karma: Annual ceremonies, Tarpana etc.

PANCHA KANYAS: Ahalya, Draupadi, Taaraa, Seetaa and Mandodari.  (Five celebrated house- wives (Pativratasa)

PANCHESHU—Manmata  (God of Love) with five arrows to shoot at five senses.

PANCHA MAKAARA TATTVAS (TAANTRIC)—Matsya (fish), Maamsa(meat) , Madya  (intoxicant), Mudra (gestures) and Maithuna (copulation)

FIVE GROUPS OF VEDIC YEARS: Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idaavatsara, Iduvatsara and Idvatsara


SIX

SHANMATAS: Ganapathya, Soura, Koumara, Siva, Saaktha, and Vaishnava. These are the six types of Worship of God. They are upaasana relating to   Ganapathi, Sun God, Subramanya, Siva, Devi and Vishnu respectively.

VEDAANGAS: Siksha, Vyaakarana, Chandas, Niruktha, Jyothisha and Kalpa
They are related to Education, Grammar, Maatra, Kosa, Time and Pooja method respectively

SHAD-RIPUS: Kaama, Krodha, Moha, Lobha,  Mada and Maatsarya   

BHAGAVAAN:   Power to command everything( AISWARYA) To defeat the enemies ( VEERYA) ; Unobstructed knowledge of everything (JNANA); Un limited wealth and prosperity (SRI) ; Non attachment to Prakruthi and material objects (VAIRAAGYA) ; Fame (YASAS). [Utpattim pralayam chiava bhootaanaamagatim gatim |vetti vidyaam avidyaam cha sa vaachyo bhagavaaniti|| (Wealth; Power; Dharma; Fame; Character: Knowledge; and Dispassion—Bhagfavatam)]

SHAD RITUS: Vasanta; Greeshma; Varsha; Sarad; Greeshma and Sisira

SMRITIS (SIX SCRIPTURES): Smriti, Puraana, Itihaasa, Nibandha, Aagama, and Neetisaastra.

SHAD-DARSANA: Six schools of Hindu Philosophy – Vaisheshika,; Sankhya; Yoga; Nyaaya; Poorva Meemaamsa; Uttara Meemaamsa

SHAD-RAAGAS (SIX MUSICAL TONES): Bhairava, Malaara, Sriraaga, Hindola, Maalakosa and Deepaka.

SHADRASAS (SIX TASTES): Madhura,  Lavana, Tikta, Kathu, Kashaaya and Amla

SHAD-CHAKRAS: Moolaadhaara; Svaadhishthaana; Manipoora;Anaahata; Visuddha; Aajnaa



SEVEN

SAPTA-CHIRANJEEVEES (IMMORTALS) : Aswathama, Maha Bali, Veda Vyasa, Hanuman, Vibheeshana, Kripacharya, Parasurama.

SAPTA-RISHIS: Athri, Brighu, Kutsa, Vashista, Gauthama, Kaasyapa and Angirasa. 

SAPTA- SAMUDRAS (OCEANS):- Lavana, Ikshu, Sura, Sarpi, Dadhi, Ksheera, Sudha and Udakam

SAPTA CHANDAS (METERS):- Gayatri, Ushnik, Anushtup, Bruhathi, Pankthi, Trishtup, Jagathi- denoting no of letters 24, 28,32,36,40,44, and  48. These are called Veda Chandas.

SAPTA-DWEEPAS (ISLANDS) Jambu, Plaksha, Kusa, Krouncha, Saaka, Saalmali, & Pushkara (Hindus in India are in Jambu Dweepam; In USA Hindus believe they are in Krouncha Dweepa).

SAPTA-KALPAS: Paarthiva, Koorma, Pralaya, Anantha, Svethavaraaha, Braahmma, and Savithra. (We are now in 5th Kalpa called Svetha Varaaha Kalpa).

SAPTA PRAANAAH: 5 sense organs (jnaanedriyas), manas (mind and Buddhi(intellect) [Taittareeya Samhita]

SAPTAARCHI SHAH (SEVEN SACRIFICIAL FIRES): Graahapatya, Aahavaneeya; Dakshinaagni; Anvahaarya; Aabhyaavastya; Prajaahita; Agnidreeyah . One who constitutes   seven sacrificial fires Vishnu (Yajna Purusha) or Agni  (Both are Vyaahritis of Brahman)

SAPTA JWAALAAH (SEVEN FLAMES): Kaali, Karaali, Manojava, Sulohita, Sudhoomra-varna; Sphulingini; Visvaaruchi (Seven flames of Agni)

SAPTA JIHVAH (SEVEN TONGUED): One who exhibits seven tongues or flames; Agni or Vishnu

SAPTA KSHETRAS—Kurukshetra, Harihara-kshetra, Sukara-kshetra, Prabhaa-kshetra, Rama-kshetra, Bhunga-kshetra and Purushottama-kshetra

SAPTA PURIS (CITIES)—Kaasi, Kaanchi, Maya, Ayodhya, Dwaraka, Mathura and Avantika

SAPTA-NADEES (RIVERS): Ganga; Yamuna; Godavari; Sarasvati; Narmada: Sindhu and Kaaveri

SAPTA SAMIDHS (FAGOTS): Aswattha; Udumbara; Paalasa; Samee; Vikantaka; Asanihitavriksha; Pushkaraparna

SAPTAUDHAAH: VISHNU [Being Yajnapurusha he is personified as seven fagots mentioned above]

SAPTA SWARAS: sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni-- (Shadja; Rishabha;  Gandhara; Madhyama; Panchama; Daivata; Nishada)

PAAKA YAGNAS (FIRE SACRIFICES) (7): Ashtaka; Sthaleepaaka: Parvana; Sraavani; Aagrahaayani; Chaitri; Aasvaayuja

SOMA YAJNAS (7): Agnishtoma; Atyaangishtoma: Uktya; Shodasi; Vaajapeya; Atiraatra; Aaptoryaama

SAPTA MARUTAH (SEVEN MARUTS): Avahana, Pravahana, Vivahana, Paramavahana, Udvahana, Samvahana and Parivahana

SAPTAVAAHANAH: Soorya riding on a chariot driven by seven horses; also VIshnu

HAVIR YAJNAS (7): Agniyaadhaana; Agnihotra; Dasa-poornamaasa; Aagraayana; Chautarmaasya: Niruddhapasu-bandhana; Soutraamani

SAPTA DHATUS: Seven Elements or Components in Ayurveda: Rasa ( Plasma, tissue or chyl); Rakta (blood); Maamsa (flesh) Medas (fat); Asthi (bone); Majja (marrow); Sukla (sperm)  [upper skin and lower skin are sometimes found in place of Rasa and Sukla}

VAASARAH:  Seven days in a week; Ravi, Soma, Kuja (Indu), Budha, Brihaspati (Guru),  Sukra, Sani 

 SAPTA SAKTI: Braahmi; Vaishnavi; Mahesvari; Kaumari; Varaahi; Aindri; Chamundi 

SAPTA LOKAS (SEVEN UPPER WORLDS): Bhur (Mortal); Bhuvah (Celestial) ; Suvah (Devas or Gods); Mahah ( Radiant Beings), Janah (Deities); Tapah (Pure souls);  and Satya (Truth)                                                                                                                                                                                                            
 
 SEVEN NETHER WORLDS: Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Bhutala,Rasaatala, Mahaatala and Pataala


EIGHT

BRAHMA’S CREATION  (8 types):   Gods, Manes, Demons (Rakshasas), Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas; Siddhas- Chaaranas- Vidhayadharas;   and finally Kinnaras   (Kimpurshas)

AATMA GUNAS (8)  : Compassion, Patience, Freedom from Jealousy, Purity   (cleanliness), not being obstinate, keeping cool-mind, non- covetousness, desirelessness, (in other words they are Daya, Shanthi, Anasuya, Soucham, Anaayaas, Mangala, Akaarpanya and  Aspruha).

ASHTAVASUS:    Agni (Anala); Prithvee (Dharaa); Vaayu (Anila); Antariksha (Aaha): Aaditya (Prartyusha); Dyaus (prabhaasa); Soma (Chandramaa); Tarangini or Nakshatrini (Dhruva)

ASHTASIDDHIS : Anima ( reducing the body to the size of atom); Mahima  (Magnifying the body to gigantic size); Laghima ( extreme lightness of the body; Praapti ( establishing contact with the senses of the entire creation in the form of deities presiding over the senses); Praakamya ( the capacity to enjoy pleasures heard of and enjoyable only in heaven and the subterranean world);  Eeasitva( the capacity to arrest Maaya and the potencies from functioning); Vasitva (absence of attachment to pleasures of the senses); Kaamyaavasayitaa ( by which one is able to enjoy whatever pleasure he desires in the highest measure). These are also known as 8 kinds of Aisvarya (Wealth) of Brahman in Brahmachakra (Svetavatara Upanisad)

JEERNODDHAARA PADAARTHAAS (8): Materials used for fixing deities during Jeernoddhaarana Kumbaabhishekam usually conducted once in 12 years are ashta dravyas. They are: Kadukkai, Aamla, Conch powder, filtered-nice sand, Kol Arakku, Cotton, Kozhy paaral, Chenchilyam- The above are mixed with Butter.

VIVAAHAAS (8 TYPES): Brahmya, Deiva (offering kanya during sacrifice to Ritvik), Aasra (given to sages for their help), Prajapathya  (to beget children), Asura , Ghaandharva, Raakshasa, Paisacha.

ASHTAANGA YOGA: Yama; Niyama; Aaasana; Praanaayaama; Prtyaahaara; Dhaarana; Dhyaana; Samaadhi

ASHTAAKSAHREE—Vedic Mantra—“Om Namoh Naaraayanaaya”

EIGHT  FORMS OF PRAKRITI: Prithvee; Aapah; Analah; Vaayuh; Aakaasah; Mahah; Buddhi; Ahankaara

EIGHT GODS: Brahma, Prajaapati; Devaah; Gandharvaah; Yakshaah; Raakshsaah: Pitraah; Pisaachaah

EIGHT GUNAS OF AATMA: Dayaa(knindness); Sarvabhooteshu Kshaantih (tolerance to all beings); Anasooya (free from greed); Saucham(purity); Anaayaasah (stress free); Mangalam(auspiciousness); Akaarpanyam (devoid of miserliness); Asprisaa( Free from desires)

EIGHT SAKTIS OF VISHNU—Sridevi (Wealth) , Bhoodevi (Earth), Saraswat (knowledge), Preet (Satisfaction), Keerti (Fame), Shanti (Peace), Tushti (Plesure) and Pushti (health)


NINE

NAVAGRAHAS (NINE PLANETS): They are allotted each week day- but Rahu and Kethu were also to be accommodated along with them. Accordingly each one them were given 1/8 portion of the day (hence each one got one and half hours on each day). Navagrahas are not main deities meant for worship. They are only Upa- Devathas to main deities like Siva and Soorya Narayana—Soorya; Chandra; Kuja; Budha; Guru; Sukra; Sani; Raahu; Ketu

NAVADURGAS—Shilaputri; Brahmachaarini; Chandraghanta; Kushmaanda; Skandamaataa; Katyaayini;  Kaalaraatri;  Mahaagauri; Siddhidhaatri

NAVADVAARAAS (NINE HOLES OF THE BODY): Our body (Sareera) consists of Nava Dwaaras: They are Nose (2); Eyes (2); Ear (2); Mouth; Paayu and Upastham ( One each)

NAVA KHAANDAS: They are:-Indra, Kaseru, Thaamra, Kapasthi, Punnaga, Gandharva, Soumya, Varuna, Bharatha. We are living in Bharatha Khanda.

NAVA-VARSHAS: Bharatha, Kimpurusha, Hari, Ilavruthu, Bhadraasva, Kethumaala, Hiranyaka, Ramanaka, Guruvarsham. Of the above we use Bharatha Varsham.

NAVA MAANAS: (CALENDAR YEAR CALCULATIONS): They are Brahma Maanam, Deiva, Bilya, Prajapathya, Brihaspathya, Soura Maana , Chandra Maana,  Saavana, Nakshtra Maanam. Mainly Soura and Chaandra Manaas are popular and in use. Sourya Maana is based on Soorya Sidhanta and here Sun God is given all importance. Chaandra Maana followers give importance for the strength of the Moon. Hence after Amavaasya day (Prathama) when the moon is starting to gain power is considered as auspicious. As the Moon’s strength is more in the night some of the Chaandra Maana followers perform functions like marriage etc in the night.

For Sourya Maana followers a day is divided into five parts. They are Praatah  Kaala, Sangava Kaala, Madhyanna Kaala and Aparaahna Kaala, Saayam Kaala. Sangava Kaala is approximately from 8.am to 10.am which is considered as good period to start all good karmas like Aayushya Homa, other Santhi Karmas etc. Sraadha Karma and other Apara karmas should start after Sangava Kaala and should end in the Aparaahna Kaala.

NAVAAKSHAREE—Devi Mantra: “ Hreem  Sreem Kleem Chaamundaayai Vicche 

NINE EVILS TO ESCHEW; Desire, aversion, greed, infatuation, arrogance, envy, injury to living things, stealth and sexual misdeeds. [Kaama-krodha-moha-lobha-mada-maatsarya-vihitahimsaa-aasteya-lokavidvishta varjanam—Sakta sootra]

NINE PITRUGANAS—Visva; Visvabhuk; Aradhya; Dharma; Dhanya; Shubhaana; Bhutida; Bhutakrit; Bhukti

NAVARATNAS—Mukta, Manikya, Vajra, Vaidhoorya, Gomedhika, Vidurna, Padmaraaga, Marakantna and Neela

NINE TREASURES (OF KUBERA)—Mahaapadma, Padma, Shnakha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, Neela and Kharva


TEN

 DASA DIKPAALAKAS:  Ten Dik-Paalakas ( Directional Deities) who are protecting us from all the 10 directions.

They are: Indra ( East); Agni ( South East); Yaman ( South; Nairuthi( South West);  Varuna   (West);  Vaayu ( North West);  Soma ( North); Eesaana   (North East); Brahma (above) and  Vishnu (below). For construction of building as per Vaasthu Sastra the above directions are taken for consideration.

DASAAVATAARAS (Ten Incarnations): Matsya, Koorma, Varaaha, Narasimha, Vaamana, Parasurama,Sri Rama,   Sri Krishna, Balaraama and Kalki. [Some consider Buddha in place of Balaraama]

ELEVEN

EKAADASA RUDRAS: Mahaadeva, Siva, Rudra, Sankara, Neelalokhitha, Easaana, Vijaya, Bheema, Devada, Bhavothbhava, Aaditya.

Vaamadeva, Jyeshta, Sreshta, Rudra, Kaala, Kalavikarana, Balavikarana, Balar Bhalapramadhana, Sarvaboothadamana, Manonmana

Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahaan, Siva, Ruthadwaja, Uggraretha, Bhavar, Kaala, Vaamadeva, Druthavratha

TWELVE

YAMAS AND NIYAMAS (YOGASAASTRA): Yamas: Harmlessness, Uttering only that which is wholesome, and agreeable, Abstaining from theft, Absence of attachment, Modesty, Non accumulation of possessions, Faith, Chastity , Silence of speech, Firmness, Forgiveness, Fearlessness.

Niyamas:- Cleanliness of body by bath, Purity of mind, Chanting Gayathri and other texts, Austerity, Pouring oblations into the sacred fire, Reverence for the true religion, Hospitality, Worshipping God, , Visiting sacred places, Working for the benefit of others, Contentment, Service to the preceptor.

AADITYAS: Arunah; Sooryah; Bhaanuh: Tapanah; Chandramas; Mitrah; Hiranyaveeryah; Ravih;
Aryamaah; Gabhastih; Divaakarah;  Visnuh

DVAADASA JYOTIRLINGAANI (TWELVE JYOTIRLINGAS):  Somanatha; Mallikaarjuna; Mahaakaala; Onkaaresvara; Vaidynaatha; Naaganaatha; Kedaaranaatha; Trayambakesvara; Raamesvara; Bheemasankara;  Viswanaatha; Ghrinesvara


THIRTEEN
VISWEDEVAS: According to Vishnu Purana they are sons of Visvaa, daughter of Daksha Prajaapati namely—Vasu, Satya, Kratu, Daksha, Kaala, Kaama, Dhritu, Kuru, Purooravas, Madarvas, Rocake and Dhvani Dhuri. Often Braihaspati is included in their group to make a group of 13 Gods to whom prayers are offered as Visvedevas. Visvedevas’ names appear in all worships and rituals, being celebrated Gods of Rigveda.

COMPILERS OF SAMAVEDA: 13 Rishis  collected all poetic Mantras of Rigveda and Yajurveda under one group called Samaveda, They are Raanaayana; Saaryamurgi Vyaasa; Bhaagauri Oulund; Gaulomulavi; Bhaanumaan; Oupmanyawa; Daraala; Gaagarya; Saavarni; Vaarshagan; Kuthumi; Shaalihotra; Jaimini


FOURTEEN

 CHATURDASA LOKAAH: They are Bhu, Bhuva:, Suva:, Maha:, Jana:, Tapa:, Sathya, ( in the ascending order above the earth.) Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talaatala, Rasaatala, Mahaatala, Paatala ( in descending order below the earth)

CHATURDASA MANVANTARAAH: They are: Swaayambhuva, Swaroochisha, Uttama, Taamasa, Raivatha, Chakhusha, Vaivaswatha, Savarni, Daksha Savarni, Brahmma Savarni, Dharma Savarni, Rudra Savarni, Deva Savarni, Indra Savarni. (We are in the Vaivaswatha Manwanthara  now)
  
FOURTEEN APHORISMS (MAHESVARA SOOTRA)—fourteen beats of the percussion hand drum of Nataraja

FOURTEEN-FOLD VEDIC KNOWLEDGE—the four Vedas, along with Puraana, Nyaaya, Meemaamsa, Dharma Saastra and the six Vedangas are the fourteen source of knowledge and dharma.

FIFTEEN

KRISHNA PAKSHA FORTNIGHT—14 Tithis+ Amaavasya

SHUKLA PAKSAHA FORTNIGHT—14 Tithis+Poornima

PANCHDASA MUHOORTAS (48 minute=1 muhoorta of the day time)—Raudrah, Saarpa, Maitra, Paitra, Vaasava, Aapya,  Vaiswa,  Braahma, Praaja,  Eesa, Aindra, Aindraagna, Nairrita, Vaarub naaryamaana and Bhagee.

“Rauudrah Saarpastathaa Maitrah Paitro Vaasava eva cha | Aapyo Vaiswastathaa Braahmah Praajes-Aindrastathaiva cha | | Aidraagnoe Nairutaschaiva Vaarunaarnamanoe Bhagee | Ete-ahni kramasoe jneyaa muhoortaa dasa pancha cha ||


 SIXTEEN

SHODASA UPACHAARA POOJA (WORSHIP WITH 16 STEPS): i.e Dhyanam, Aavahanam, (Aasanam,) Paadhyam, Arghyam, Aachamanam, Madhuparkam, ( Snaanam, After Snaana Aachamanam) Vastram,( Abharanam, Yagnopaveetham), ( Gandham-Kumkumam-Akshata) Pushpa Archana, Dhoopam, Dheepam, Naivedyam, Tamboolam, Karpoora Neeranjanam.  Swarna pushpam, Mantra pushpam, Pradakshina Namaskarams, Sthuthi Slokas, Individual Prarthana, Chatra Chaamaradhi Samarpanam-Ending Pooja Samarpanam etc are also part of the pooja Vidhana)

SHODASA SAMSKAARAS (RELIGIOUS RITES): Garbhaadaana; Pumsavana; Seemantonnayana; Jaatakarma; Naamakarana; Nishkramana; Annapraasana;  Karnavbedha; Vapanakriyaa; Upanayana; Keshaanta; Vedaarambha; Vedasnaana; Vivaaha; Vivaahaagni-parigraha;  Tretaagnisangraha

SHODASEE: 10 sense organs +Manas (mind) + 5 elements (Upanishad)



SEVENTEEN

SOOKSHMA SAREERA (SUBTLE BODY): Human body constitutes Sthoola Sareera (gross body), Sookshma Sareera (subtle body and Kaarana Sareera (casual body). Of this Sookshma Sareera constitutes   five sense organs (Jnaanedriyas), five motor organs (Karmendriyas), five Pranas (Vital forces), mind and intellect according to Vedanta view.

EIGHTEEN

ASHTAADASA SIDDHIS (18 ATTAINMENTS): Eight are mentioned UNDER 8 No. 8. The other 10  Siddhis are : Absence of hunger, thirst and old age; The capacity to see distant things; Capacity to hear from unusual distance; Moving at any speed; Taking any form at will; Leaving one’s body at will;    Participation in the sports of Gods; Attaining any desired object; Exercising unobstructed, authority anywhere.

PURAANAS: They are: Matsya, Maarkandeya, Bhavishya, Bhagavatha, Brahmma, Brahmmanda, Brahmma Vaivartha, Vaamana, Siva, Varaaha, Vishnu, Agni, Narada, Padma, Linga, Garuda, Koorma, Skaandha.. Apart from the above there are 18 Upa-puranas also.

STEPS TO HEAVEN: One has to climb eighteen steps to reach Aiyappan in Sabarimalai (Pathinettu-padi) in Kerala in India.  18 steps are supposed to be the steps of ladder to heaven. They represent eighteen principles—Five sense organs, eight internal enemies like lust and greed, three gunas (Satva, Rajas and Tamas) and Vidyaa(Apara Vidya) and Avidya (apara vidya). Geeta preaches on salvation progressively   in 18 chapters.

LINGA DEHA (18): Consciousness, ego, eleven senses (five motor organs + five sense organs + mind) and five subtle elements (according to Ayurveda)

VIDYAS: Vedas 4, Upavedas 4, Upaangas 4 and Vedaaangas 6 totaling 18 Vidyas.

NINETEEN

As per Ayurveda (Nagarjuna) there are 19 Maha Oushadhees like, Sanjeevani, Vrana, Viropani etc.

NINETEEN CONSTITUENTS THAT MAKE THE HUMAN BODY FUNCTION: 4 Antah-karanas+5 Jnaanedriyas+5 Karmendriyas+5 Pancha-praanas=19 constituents.

TWENTY-ONE

Our Bodies have 21 Very important parts according to Ayurveda Sastra.
5 Jnanedriyas+5 Karmendriyas+5 Praanas+5 Elements (panchbhootas)+mind=21  

TWENTY-THREE

Ayurveda mentions 23 types of diseases like Jwara, Athisaaram, Vishajwara. Etc.

 TWENTY-FOUR

PRAKRITI TATWAS (24 FACTORS): Mind, Buddhi, Ahankaara, Chitta along with 5 organs of Perception, 5 organs of action, 5 Praanas (sometimes five sense objects-tanmaatras) and 5 gross elements make 24 Prakriti Tatwas

TWENTYFOUR FORMS OF VISHNU (CHATURVIMSATI MURTI):  Kesava(Agni); Narayana(Prajaapati);  Maadhava(Soma): Govinda(Easaana); Vishnu( Savir); Madhsoodhana (Brihaspati); Trivikrama(Paitru-deva); Vaamana(Bhaga); Sreedhara(Arhamaa); Hrisheekesa (Savitri); Padmanaabha(Tvashtri); Daamodara (Pooshan); Samkarshana (Indra); Vaasudeva (agni); Pradyumna  (Vaayu); Aniruddha (Mitraa-varuna); Purushottama (Bhraatrideva); Adhokshaja (Visvedeva); Naarasimha (Vishnu); Achyuta (Vaasava); Janardhana (Tushtiba); Uopendra(Kubera) Hari (Dasra); Sri Krishna (Brahma). [They also signify  24 syllables of Gayatri mantra: ta, tsa, vi, tu, rva, re, ni, yam, bha, rgo, de, va, sya, dhee, ma, hi, dhi, yo, yo, nah, pra, cho, da, yat].       

TWENTY-SEVEN

Nakshatras are 27 in number in modern astrology. But as per Vedas we have 28 stars. In the last pada of Uttara Aashada and first Pada of Sravana a star by name “ABHIJIT” is situated.

THIRTY-ONE

There are 31 Lokas as per scriptures. Apart from the 14 mentioned some- where in this article, the following Lokas also forms part of the 31 lokas. They are: Vaikunta, Radha, Go-loka, Manidweepa, Maha Kaalapura, Sivapura, Ganesha Loka, (7 Sub-heavens). Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kasi, Kanchi, Avanthika, Dwaraka (These 7 forms Bhu Loka Vaikunta); Kailasa, Manasasarovar, Meru  (Three Brahmma Lokas).

THIRTY-THREE

Thirty Three Devatas are Ekadasa Rudra (11), Dwadasa Aadithyas(12), Ashta Vasus(8), Aswinidevas (twins), and Prajaapati.

FORTY SAMSKARAS— 1. Garbhaadaana, 2.  Pumsavana,   3. Seemantonnayana,  4. Jaatakarma, 5. Naamakarana,  6. Annapraasana, 7. Chudakarana, 8. Upanayan, 9. Praajaapatyam (veda-vrata), 10. Saumya (veda-vrata) 11. Aagneya (veda-vrata) 12. Visvewdava (veda-vrata), 13. Samaavartana, 14. Vivaaha, 15 to 19. Pancha Mahaa Yajnaas, 20 to 26. Paaka y Yajnas, 27 to 33. Havir Yajnas, 34 to 40. Soma Yajnas.

FORTY-NINE

According to Scriptures there are 49 Maruth Ganas.    

FIFTY

The first letter came out through God’s nose was “OM”. From Omkara 49 other letters came. They are 25 consonants from ( Ka to Ma) 16 Vowels from ( Aa- Aha:) 4 aspirants ( Sa –Sha- Sa -Ha ) 4 Semi Vowels ( Ya –ra-la-va ). It is reported that Vedic metres are made of these sounds. 

FIFTY-ONE—51 Sakti peethas dedicated to Goddess Sakti

SIXTY

HINDU YEARS CYCLE: 60 Years—Prabhava, Vibhava ……etc. (See Hindu Calendar on  Blog: <nrsrini.blogspot.com>  for all the names)

MISCELLANEOUS

CHANDAS OF RIGVEDA (13): Gayatri (24 letters); Ushnik (28); anushtup (32); Brihati  (36); Pankti (40); Trishtup (44); Jagati (48); Atijagati (52); Shakwari (56); Atishakvari (60);  Ashthi (64); Atyashthi (68) Dhriti (72)

CHANDAS OF YAJURVEDA (8): Atidhriti (76); Kriti (80); Prakriti (84); Aakriti (88); Vikriti (92); Sankriti (96); Abhikriti (100); Utakriti (104)

CHANDAS OF ATHARVAVEDA (5); Uktaa (4); Atyuktaa (8); Madhyaa (12); Pratishthaa (16); Supratishthaa (20)

GAYATRI PURVA PANCHAK CHANDAS (5): Maa (4); Pramaa (8);Pratimaa (12); Upamaa (16); Samaa (20) [These are not used in Mantra Samhitas)

108 DIVYAKSHETRAS
—108 Vishnu temples famous due to the devotional song sung by the Azhvars, the twelve devotee-saints of Lord Vishnu.