Saturday, March 29, 2014


Your Worship is Not Complete Without Meditation on Brahman 
(Compilation for a discourse By N. R. Srinivasan, Nashville, TN, USA, March 2014)


We end up all our worship and rituals with the word “Krishnarpanamanstu” thereby meaning for any commission or omission, this worship or ritual is placed at the feet of the lord, thus seeking his blessings in our performance.  Such actions blessed by the Lord are bound to result in good things only. This we say with all our heart whatever may be our chosen deity.   This concluding prayer is directed to Supreme Principal only.  In our discourse on “Why temples have red and white stripes on their outer walls” we have learnt irrespective of  whatever deity we worship  in temples our prayers are all directed to Nirguna Brahman through Saguna Brahman visualized as Trinity in his functional aspects of Creation (Srishthi), Preservation (Sthiti) and Dissolution (Laya).

Vaastu Mandala or the charged atmosphere in the temple is the imaging of the cosmos which is achieved by the presence of 32 divinities who are planets, stars and guardians of directions who are accommodated on the perimeter of Vastumandala with various other deities subsidiary to the main deity who is the central shrine who occupies Brahmasthaana, the place of realization of Supreme Brahman. This is the place assigned to Brahma, the Lord of creation in the Vedic tradition. In Puranic tradition this position is assigned to the major Hindu Gods, Vishnu and Siva, making Brahma subordinate and placing his deity on the northern wall of the sanctum. But the concept of Trinity worship continues in Hindu Tradition. Siva manifests as Linga (Vyakta-avyakta form) while Vishnu manifests himself in his divine forms and incarnations (avatars). Both these are the Universal Brahman in their sectarian systems of beliefs and worships while the other Vedic deities remain as subordinates in their positions as pada-devatas.  Later Puranas also brought in two sons of Siva as main deities for worship.  Jayadeva hailed Krishna as Jagadeesa  or Brahman. Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, family members of Krishna were introduced as Vyuha deities for worship by Pancharatra (Chaturvyuha) Theology of Vaishnavas.  In all these in reality worship is directed to Trinity or Saguna Brahman only, be it a Siva temple or Vishnu temple.


The doctrine of Trinity is prevalent in Christianity too though they do not mean the same way as Hindus but there is every reason to believe they have been influenced by it.  It is the father who generates, Son who is begotten and Spirit that Sustains. All things come from Father delivered through the Son with the Holy Spirit. Trinity Sunday falls on the first Sunday after Pentecost celebrating this doctrine by many. Even though there is no mention of the word Trinity in the Holy Bible, the faithful draw references to this doctrine drawing reference to several quotes from the Bible. In essence this reflects essential view of Vedanta, Bible's precursor about One God with three functional aspects. Legend says Patrick used the shamrock to teach about the Trinity, the concept of three persons in one God. The stem represented God with the three leaves designating the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. St. Patrick's Day is celebrated on March 17 (his death anniversary) every year to honor the patron saint of Ireland. This day is focused for imparting seeds of truth about obeying God and praying for missionaries.


Puranas, though  aware  of the formlessness of Brahman who has no gender attached   identity, choose to bring in the concept of worship of the Supreme in the form of Mother, as only mother can bestow love and affection on her child unconditionally at all times. Any creation requires a womb which the Vedas mention as Hiranyagarbaha. Garbha in Sanskrit means womb. Aakaasa or space is the womb for the creation of the Universe. In this Garbha context Puranas conceived creator only in the female form of Holy Mother.  Puranas then came out with the strength aspect of Saguna Brahaman responsible for all activity. Strength in Sanskrit is Sakti which is a feminine noun. So the Puranas came out with   three female components to three male components of Siva (dissolution or Laya), Vishnu (sustenance or Sthiti) and Brahama (creation or Srishthi) as Parvati, Lakshmi and Saraswati. This gave rise to   Sakta Tradition which attributed all activity to Sakti in the form of female trinity—Lakshmi, Sarasvati and Parvati. Brahman had no sex identity as Rigveda define Brahman as Tat+ ekam= tadekam, meaning that one.  The word Brahman in Sanskrit language is neither masculine nor feminine. It is neuter. Puranas identified Saguna Brahman as Trinities as male as well as female entities.   Parabrahman who had no gender has been named Paraasakti a feminine entity by Sakta followers and according to them any worship to any female deity in temples is directed to Paraasakti only.


Saayana, the commentator on Mahanarayana Upanishad states the mantra “om antascharati bhooteshu” is employed for the contemplative worship of the Supreme after Gaayatree Visarjana (farewell) connected with the twilight-devotion or Sandhyavandana. Saayana and Ranga   Ramanuja are the great commentators of later ages on Upanishads like Sankara, the earliest to comment.   Ranga Ramanuja follows Vishishtaadvaita Philosophy, while Saayana follows Advaita Philosophy. In Sandhyavandana we are meditating on Sun during the morning and mid-day prayers and on Agni during twilight zone prayer.  In Rigveda we hardly find the word Brahman but Tadekam that One who is worshiped as Sun, Fire, Moon, Water, Earth etc. Rudra (Brahman) of Rigveda in his auspicious and pleasant form is worshiped as Siva. Puranas depict this form of Siva as white in complexion, with one eye having Sun, the other having Moon and the third Jnaanchakshu, the fire that burns all ignorance. Hence this description of Rudra is Parabrahman only who is glorified as Siva or Saguna Brahman. Sun, Moon and Agni are defined as Vyahritis of Brahman in Rigveda and so represent him alone.

But what prompted Saayana to say   the Mantra beginning with  Om antascharatibhootesshu  is to be employed for the contemplative worship of the Supreme after Gayatree-visarjana ritual connected with the twilight-devotion for Dwijas?   This is a very powerful Mantra beginning with AUM and ending with AUM describing in between there is nothing other than Supreme and that everything has it value derived from the Supreme.  It is a very powerful aumnic mantra on Brahman bracketed by two AUMs. Probably it should be the AUM-mantra in Kathopanishad endorsed by Bhagavdgeeta as described below as well as the fourth quarter  of Mandookya Upanishad. (Please refer to the discourse on Mandookya Upanishad).

Kathopanishad in 2-15   brings forth powerfully AUMNIC meditation as an advice to Nachiketas from Lord Yama: “Sarve vedaa yat padmaamananti tapaamci sarvaani cha yad vadanti | Yad ichchanto brahmacharyam charanti tat te padam sangrahena braveemi-AUM-ity-etat || [Yama said; The state which all the Vedaas declare of (praise), which all penances proclaim and wishing for which they lead the life of celibacy, that State (pada) I will tell you. It is the (fourth) State AUM.  The word Padam has something like 22 meanings in Sanskrit such as way, place, abode, foot-step, state, goal etc.

A close echo of this immortal mantra is heard   in Bhagavadgeeta which repeats the second half the mantra in its verse in chapter 8, verse 11:  Yad aksharam vedavidovadavti visanti yad yatayo  veetaraagaah | yad ichchaanto brahmacharyam charanti tat te padam sangrahena pravekshye || That State which the knowers of Vedas call eternal, where in the ascetics enter, being free from attachment and desiring which they practice celibacy—that goal I shall declare to you briefly.  That is AUM.[The word Pada meaning State can be found in  Mandookya, Katha  and Bhagavadgeeta meaning the same--the Tureeya State or Brahman or AUM]


We have the following Vedic Mantra in several Upanishads and sloka in Bhagavdgeetaa which describe that Universal Fire and Light:

Na tatra sooryo bhaati na chandrataarakam nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kutoyam agnih |
Tameva bhaantim-anubhaati sarvam tasya bhaasaa sarvam-idam vibhaati ||
[The Sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars. These lights do not shine?  Where-from can Agni do so? All these shine after Him (Brahman) the Ever-shining. All these shine out because of His effulgence!

Divi soorya-sahasrasya bhaved-yugapad-utthitaa |
Yadi baah sadrisee sa syaad-bhaasaas-tasya  mahaatmanahn ||
If the effulgence of a thousand Suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, that might resemble the effulgence of that Supreme Being (Brahman).

Also Bhagavdgeetaa says:
Ahma vaisavvanaro bhootvaa praaninaam dehamaasritah |

I am the Universal Fire dwelling in the body of all living beings.
The illuminating characteristic of the sun, moon and fire is an aspect of the Infinite Consciousness. The cosmic energy pervades the entire universe and holds it intact. It comes as life energy, enters the earth and sustains all the movables and immovable.  The Sun, the Moon and the Fire on which we meditate upon and Siva the auspicious who has Sun, Moon and Fire as his three eyes whom we worship in visible forms are that Universal Effulgence only. This is the same light and fire that Moses saw in the burning bush, that he could not look at being blindfolded because of the brightness many times greater than the Sun and from which he received The Ten Commandments to deliver it to the world. This is the same Light that Buddha received on Enlightenment based on which his followers started a new religion. Buddha did not start any religion. This is the same light that Parsis with their Zarathustra following worship that Fire. This is the Light that is revealed in Grantha Sahib. This is the light that outshines in Himalayan snow in Amarnath as Snow-white Linga.  This is the Light that emerged as Lingodbhava moorti of Trinity on Sivaratri Night. This is the Light that we cannot define but feel its power all the time. Even in Physics light is not explainable with any one theory; the chapter on Light begins with “What is Light?” and “ends with “What is Light?”

Every temple, be it Siva or Vishnu, must have a niche in the northern wall for Brahma, and the image must receive worship every day. In Siva temple we offer our worship to pedestal Linga. This Pedestal Linga has a base called Brahma Bhaaga, a middle portion or Yoni called Vishnu Bhaga and the top portion called Linga part or Siva. Therefore in all Siva temples our worship in reality is directed to Trinity or Saguna Brahman.  In Vishnu Temple Vishnu having assumed the color of dark blue we actually recognize the presence of Siva who is associated with darkness or Tamoguna. However Vishnu being the custodian of Sattvaguna he is identified with white all through.   So Vishnu images are a combination of Siva and Vishnu. With the presence of Brahma prevailing in all temples here also all our worships are directed to Trinity or Saguna Brahman.

We may be wondering why Vishnu is associated with feminine aspect (yoni) of Linga. In Vishnu Sahasranama we can find many names of Vishnu in feminine gender. In Puranas he took the   bewitching Mohini Avatar and married Siva. Ayyappan was the result of this union and addressed as Hariharaaatmaja. Siva is sometimes portrayed as Ardhanareeswara but not as a female entity altogether. Vishnusahasranama also has many names in neuter gender. Thus Vishnu like Brahman has all genders or no gender. That is why in his name as Narayana he is identified as Parabrahman. If we think deep Lingodbhava Moorti is a column of fire or Jyoti  and  that represents Saguna Brahman as fire column or bright white column.  We learn from the Puranas that when the deadly poison Haalaahala or Kaalakoota came floating  during the  churning of the Ocean of Milk Siva saved the disaster by swallowing the poison to become Neelakantha. There is a story behind this incidence. When the Devas requested Siva to save the world, Siva told Ganesha who was nearby, “Listen, Ahamkaraa (ego) is influencing the world. The spirit of time has made the qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas”. Hardly were these words were spoken, when Sakti manifested herself in Siva, who immediately entered into Sakti and came out as a Linga. Ganesha, an eye witness to these miracles found Brahma, Vishnu and Siva and other divinities in the Linga and also beheld the Linga and Sakti without any change of identity and also as powerful as before. The whole universe was seen merged in it—Lingamoorti.  It is most enigmatic that the Linga was seen immersed in Prakriti and Prakriti was completely permeated with Linga—Sakti and Linga were found intertwined mutually and this is the origin of Lingodbhavamoorti whom you worship on Sivaratri night. In reality whom we are worshiping on this night is Trinity and their domain and that is Sadguna Brahman as revealed to Lord Ganesha. That is the Abhishekam you witness on Pedestal Lingams which is the Vyakta-avyakta form of Sadguna Brahman and not Siva alone as is generally thought to be.

Siva devotees rush to Amarnath on the holy  Sraavana Poornima day in August to worship Siva  thinking that it  is the most sacred and pure form of Siva Linga. As you know Siva icons are always seen with white face (Siva, the white skinned) unlike Vishnu who is dark faced (Vishnu, the blue skinned).  Amarnath is situated at a height of 12730 feet in the Himalayas 87 miles from Srinagar. The cave of Amarnath lies up a narrow gorge in the Liddar valley. The sacred river Amaraavati flows at the root of the cave in whose waters a few very devout, sturdy and strong take a dip. Inside the cave is the six foot Lingam of ice resting on a platform of ice.

This natural phenomenon of drops of water shaping like a Linga is remarkable. Amazingly it dwindles in size till on the New Moon Day when the outline of the base of the Lingam alone remains on the pedestal. Thus Saguna Brahman  becomes  Nirguna Brahman.  It is on the Full Moon Day in the month of Sravana (August) the Linga is at its maximum and crowds attending also the maximum. It cannot be said to be a stalagmite, for in that freezing atmosphere the stalagmite must increase in size and not get reduced while it vanishes except for the platform. Science has no explanation! Siva and Vishnu complement each other—Vishnu, the custodian of Sattva Guna is dark outside and white inside while Siva custodian of Tamo-guna is white outside and dark inside. Brahma is their inseparable companion as there can be no temple without a niche for Brahma in the northern wall of the sanctums in all temples. All our worships in reality are thus directed to Nirguna Brahman through the manifestation of Saguna Brahman in Trinity form in all temples.

Our scriptures repeatedly proclaim that Brahma, Vishnu and Siva are only the functional   aspects of Easwara, the manifestation of one Supreme Principle, who is all pervading and who has no name or  form. The Rigveda says “Eko sat vipraah bahudaa vadanti” (there is only one Almighty God whom the Pundits give several names). The Naaraayan Sooktam which glorifies the Supreme Being ends with “Sa Brahma, Sa Siva, Sa Harih, Sa Aksharah”   (he is himself Brahma, Siva and Vishnu and everything eternal or AUM). The Mahabharata says “Visnum Jishnum Mahavishnum praba Visnum Maheswarah” (The supreme Omnipotent Being pervading everywhere is known as Mahavishnu and Maheswara and by various others names and forms). The word Siva in the Sanskrit dictionary Amarakosa says as “Swah sreyasam badram  kalyanam mangalam subham” meaning Auspiciousness. It therefore refers to all Forms and Names of the Supreme. In the various verses of Sivanadalahari of Sankara the Lord is addressed as Vibhuh meaning “All Pervading Entity”. Akshar means AUm. AUM syllable consists of letter A standing for Adimata (beginning), U standing for Utkrisha (progress) and M standing for Mritu (dissolution). According to Mandookya Upanishad AUM with his half nasal sound stands: A for wakeful state; U for dream state; M for Dreamles   deep sleep state and nasal for Tureeeya state the whole sound standing for Brhaman.  


It is therefore fitting and proper that we should conclude all our prayers contemplating on Trinity or Saguna Brahman directed to Nirguna Brahman ultimately. The same mantras as in the contemplative worship of the Supreme connected with Sandhyavandana (twilight devotion) are   obligatory and appropriate to end all our worship with meditation in Veda Maarga (path of Veda) mantra “antascharati bhooteshu” like what we do in Puranic prayer “Sarvam Krishnaarpanamastu”,  with which we pray  whatever may be our tradition—Siva, Vishnu or Sakta in Bhakti Maarga (path of Devotion).

The first mantra for this meditation at the end of worship is:
I. Om tabrahma | Om tadvaayuh | Om tadaatmaa | Om  tatsatyam |   Om tatsarvam | Om tatpurornamah ||

Om that is Brahman; Om that is Vaayu; Om that is the finite self (Jeevaatma); Om that is the Supreme Truth; Om that is all;  Om that is multitude of citadels (the bodies of creatures. Obeisance to that Supreme! Om is that primeval cause that existed before creation.
The syllable Om at the beginning of each word or phrase above is for glorifying Paramaatman or Supreme Principal which echoes His all-pervasive and all-inclusive nature.  Here by Vaayu element of air all the other four elements earth, water, fire and space are also meant to whom we pay our obeisance during our worship in all temples. Vaayu represents the power of the Supreme perceptible as universal movement. The word Sarva stands for omniscient   nature of the Supreme. The above mantra is also said to be a shorter form of Gayatree Mantra.

The second mantra runs as follows:

II. Om antascharati bhooteshu guhaayaam viswamoortishu | tvam  yajnastvam vashtkaara-stvam indrastvam  Rudrstvam Vishnustvam Brahmaa  tvam Prajaapatih  || [That Supreme Being moves inside the spiritual heart of all created beings possessing manifold forms. O Supreme! Thou art the sacrifice; Thou art the Yajna mantra vashat, Thou art Indra, Thou art Rudra, Thou art Vishnu, Thou art Brahmaa (the creator), Thou art the master of all subjects!  [This mantra is prescribed also as Sarvaatmaka-brahmopasana universal meditation on Brahman.  All entities other than that   Supreme   have Him as their inner-self and so all terms signify Paramaatman alone in the ultimate analysis.

In the Andhra version of Mahanaaraayana Upanishad this second mantra includes at the end the following taken from the long Gayatree mantra:

This mantra is added to the second Mantra in the Andhra Version of MNU:
III. Tvam tadaapa aapo jyotee raso amritam brahma bhoorbhuvah suvarom ||
Thou art That, Thou art the water in the rivers and the ocean, Thou art the Sun, Thou art flavor, Thou art ambrosia, Thou art the body of the Vedas, thou art the threefold world, Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah and Thou art Om.

It is recommended to use mantras I) and II) or mantras II) and III) together. The first quarter here declares the Supreme described in I) above is hidden in the Spiritual heart of all created beings in the various forms of and the flora and fauna of the world. The second quarter is the direct address to The Supreme. In Vedic fire sacrifice we often find the priests using the words Swaha for divines and Swadha for pitrus (manes) while making the offering. Vashat and hanta are also similar words employed in fire offerings. Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the Trinity here is ascribed to be Brahman alone in Saguna form. The mantra also asserts all elements and other facts of the world as Brahma alone. A devotee has to understand thereby that there is nothing other than the Supreme and that everything has derived its significance from the Supreme alone.


In American Hindu Temples it is the general practice to conclude worship with the popular prayer in Bhajan form in Hindi, to accommodate large gatherings of devotees drawn from the Hindi belt, Om Jaya Jagadeesa Hare, a poetic composition of Pandit Sharadha Ram Phalluri of Punjab which conveys the message somewhat contained in the Veda Mantra I) above. Probably he was inspired by the Dasavatara Keerti  Dhavalam contained in Geeta Govinda of Jayadeva   of 12th century.  This is a prayer for singing loud like bhajan singing.   It does not have the powerful intonation of Veda mantras and is not suitable for meditation which is essential after participation in elaborate worship based on Bhakti Marga. Mantra is something more than a prayer which does not influence the inner voice and does  not lead to spiritual heights.  That is why in Aaagama worship such prayers and songs are not included or in fact not looked upon with favor.


The word Mantra is a combination of two Sanskrit words man and tra. Man means the mind, our thinking faculty, and tra means to emancipate. It is defined as Mananaat traayate iti mantrah-- a word which emancipates the mind.  When chanted with intonation it elevates the mind to a spiritual concept of existence and helps it to settle in the Supreme Principal. We feel the holy vibrations all around. Mantra Japa brings a change in our thinking process.   It leads us to seek true happiness within our own self. It directs our attention towards our inner treasure, which is the ultimate source of peace and happiness. Chanting of a mantra is indeed a vehicle of spiritual illumination. It helps the person to regulate, harmonize and bring the entire thinking faculty into certain order. It enables the individual acquire an ability to grasp the mystic reality through a very simple and effortless act (Saadhana).  It is the special type of energy enclosed in a primordial sound.  Mantras are for meditation. Swami Chinmayananda says, “When I pray, I talk, God listens; when I meditate, God talks and I listen”.

Why Veda mantras cannot be replaced by loud prayers; we can’t explain. It is a feeling that comes from within that God is talking to you when you chant a mantra in the divine language.   Saayana, the renowned Vedic sage therefore prescribes the last mantra, combination of II) and III) for contemplative worship of the Supreme. Our ultimate goal is to realize that Universal Oneness and its pervasiveness in all beings.  With this thinking we pay our final obeisance to Supreme Being and the five elements in our act of temple worship.  Though the prayer Jagadeesa Hare stresses on Jagadeesaa (Universal Lord) and Antaryamin (inner controller) in its famous composition and in essence echoes the Veda mantra, its effect is not felt the same way as experienced in chanting the above Veda mantras. We all know why Hindu Bhaktimarga worship is packed with so many Veda Mantras which were powerfully employed by our sages in Vedic sacrificial form of worship (Yajna).

Followers of Bhakti Maarga (devotionl thoughts) are engrossed in prayers while Spiritual Seekers of Jnaana Maarga in meditation.  Articulated and emotional prayer is Bhajan. The wise Statesman of India Rajaji has the following to say in this regard:

When intelligence (jnana) matures and lodges securely in the heart, it becomes wisdom (vignyana). When that wisdom (vignyana) is integrated with life and issues out in action, it becomes devotion (bhakti). Knowledge (jnana) which has become mature is spoken of as devotion (bhakti). If it does not get transformed into devotion (bhakti), such knowledge (jnana) is useless tinsel” (while introducing Bhajagovindam of M. S. Subbulakshmi to world audience).

he resplendent Self is attainable by the practice of spiritual disciplines as truth and continence. The chanting of the mantra with correct intonations itself is great spiritual discipline. Samayak varnaprayogena brahmaloke maheeyat--one who recites mantras with intonations attains highest merit purifying his body and mind say Vedas. The above mantras prescribed by Saayana for contemplation at the end of worship are the most thrilling and spiritually gratifying mantras of Upanishads chanted everyday by spiritual seekers. Fill up your mind with these mantras and feel the difference between meditative mantra and devotional singing!
Bhagavageetaa echoes Upanishads and you can actually find some mantras being repeated from Upanishads as slokas.  Upanishads are AHSP of Vedas—Authority Holding Sealed Particulars, that is Wisdom of Vedas.  Bhagavadgeeta is a practical guide for implementation of these particulars and not a wartime emergency document coming from a battlefield as Krishnaarjuna samvaada-dialoggue between the Guru Krishna and Arjuna the disciple. Bhagavadgeetaa concludes with the   clear mandate:

Sarvadharmaan parityajya maamekam  saranam vraja |
Aham tvam sarvapaapebhyo mokshayishyaaami maa suchah ||

Resigning all Universal and Individual Laws of Dharma, seek refuge in Me alone. I shall liberate you from all sins. Do not grieve!

This is a command and divine assurance on its implementation and not a mere statement. The seeker has to worry nothing more as he becomes one with the Supreme if he follows Dharma. Here “Tadekam (That One)” of Rigveda has become “Maamekam (Me Alone)” in Bhagavadgeetaa as it was dramatically presented as a wartime document and as dialogue between the charioteer Lord Krishna and his warrior Arjuna by Vedavyasa.  It is the master charioteer who guides the fighter in his battle of conflicts and intrigues to succeed.

Whether we worship Pedestal Linga, Jyoti Linga or Snow Linga in effect we are worshiping Saguna Brahman only and so also Vishnu who is always equated as Narayana. It is therefore  appropriate and obligatory to contemplate on the Veda mantra “antascharati bhooteshu” which Sayana has suggested for all daylight worship in which the Sun and fire are addressed as Brahman as well as obey the Geetaa’s command Maamekam, Me alone which  is fully revealed in  the mantra “antascharati bhooteshu”
Medhatithi  Sankaracharya in verse  11 of  Bhajagovindam, a philosophical rendering by Adisankara and his disciples directs us to realize the glory of Vishnu as follows:

Tvayi mayi sarvatraiko vishnur vyartham kupyaci mayyasahihnuh | sarvasminnapi pasyaatmaanam sarvatrotsrija bhedajnaanam ||

Vishnu is there in me, in you and in all others. Your   anger and intolerance   are unwarranted.    Please visualize the same Self (Atman) in all beings. Leave all your thoughts of differences and focus on Vishnu, The Omnipresent. (It is interesting to note that though a staunch follower Siva he glorifies Vishnu as the Supreme Being.  This  signifies  all prayers are directed to Supreme Being only).

 Yoga –rato vaa bhoga-rato vaa sanga-rato vaa sanga-viheenah |
Yasya brahmani ramate chittam  nandati nandati nandsyeva ||

--Anandagiri  Sankaracharya in Bhajagovindam

One may be enjoying immersed in Yoga; one may be enjoying his life as a householder;  one may be enjoying in a company ; or one mat   be enjoying to himself alone in seclusion; all this cannot  match the one whom is enjoying  the company of Brahman—such a fortunate one enjoys; enjoys and enjoys.

Mantras that blossoms our indomitable consciousness taking us to spiritual heights:

“Om Tad Brahma, Om tadvaayuh, Om tadaatama, Om tatsatyam, om tat sarvam om tatpuror namah”

“Om antascharati bhooteshu guhaayaam viswamoortishu | tvam yajnastvam Vashtkaara-stvam Indrastvam Rudrstvam Vishnustvam Brahmaa tvam Prajaapatih | Tvam tadaapa aapo jyotee raso amritam brahma bhoorbhuvah suvarom ||”  

1.      Swami Vimalananda, Mahaanaaraayana Upanishad, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India.
1.      2. Ananta Rangacharya,   Principal Upanishads, Bengaluru, India.
2.      Prabha Duneja,  Mantra and the Modern Man, Geeta Society, Pleasanton, CA, USA.
3.      Mukundan T.K., A Concept of Hinduism, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mumbai, India
4.      5. Swami Harshananda,   Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India.
5.      Swami Devarupananda, Mantrapushpam,  Ramakrishna Math, Khar, Mumbai, India.
6.      7. Prabha Duneja, The Legacy of Yoga In Bhagavdgeetaa, Gita Society, Pleasanton, CA,    USA.
7.      Champaka Lakshmi & Kris, The Hindu Temples, Rolli Books, New Delhi, India
8.      Viswanathan T.R., SanatanaDharma, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India.
9.      Allen Spance, Hindu Meditation, Huffpost, Internet.
10.  Srinivasn N.R., Mandookya Upanishad—Cornerstone to Advaita Philosophy and Pancharatra Theology, Hindu Reflections, <>