Wednesday, October 1, 2014


Sreechakra of  Sri  Lalita   and     Brahmachakra   of  Parabrahman

(Compilation for a discourse by N.R. Srinivasan , Nashville, TN, October2014)

The worship of Sri Lalita in Sreechakra is regarded as the most sacred form of Devi worship.  Shiva along with Shakti is engaged in the eternal dissolution and recreation of the universe.  Siva without Sakti is considered as Sava or eternal silence. The Bindu in the center of the Sreechakra is the symbolic representation of the cosmic spiritual union of Shiva and Shakti.   Sreechakra also embodies countless number of deities and represents the whole of creation according to Sakta worshipers. By worshipping the Devi in Sreechakra one is actually worshiping the highest ultimate force Parasakti in the Tantric form.  Parasakti is Parabrahman in Sakta concept. Sreechakra concept evolved out of Wheel of Parabrahman glorified in  Svetasvatara Upanishad. SriLalita is also called Srividya (Auspicious Knowledge).

“Auspicious Siva is capable of creating this world only when he unites with you, Oh Parasakti!   Without you Siva cannot even shake a bit and is motionless. Therefore how a sinner is worthy of  bowing  to you or worshipping  you,  who are worshiped by Brahma, Vishnu and Siva” so praises  Sankara the glory of Sri Lalita or Sri Vidya (Auspicious Knowledge) in the opening verse of Soundarya Lahari a divine composition which he edited and enlarged.   Based on this Sakta followers made Parasakti the formidable force   and Supreme Being under whose direction Brahma, Vishnu and Siva take care of Srishthi (creation), Sthiti (Sustenance) and Laya (Dissolution).

Sivah saktaa yukto yad bhavati saktah prabhavitam
Na chedevam devo na khalukusalah spanditu-mapi |
Atastvaa-maaraadhyaam  hari-hara-virinchaadabhi-rapi
Pranantu stotum vaa katha-makritapunyah prabhaavatim ||

Word Sakti in Sanskrit language is feminine. Sakti of the Lord, Prakriti is described as five rivers causing dispassion in the minds of the aspirants.  Svetasvatara recalls in the mantra 1-5: We remember Prakriti which is  having five streams of water, having the five causes that are at the face of streams, having the five Vital forces (pranas) as the waves, having the five cognitive organs that are the causes of knowledge, having the five Karmendriyas (motor organs) as whirlpools, having the five great elements that are disagreeable as the force, and having the fifty letters beginning with A (as in alone) as  differences, and having the five states of periods, and also Paramaatman who is the ruler over that Prakriti.

Pancha srotombu panchayonyugravaktraam panchpraanormim panchabudhyaadi-moolaam    | panchaavartaam panchaduhkhaughavegaam   panchasadbhedaam pancha-parvaamdheemah || ( Sv,up. 1, 5)


This Sakti of Brahman is described as Brahmachakra in Svetasvataropanishad as follows:

Sarvaajeeve sarvasamsthe brihante tasmin hamso bhraamyate brahmachakre |
Prithagaatmaanam preritaaram cha matva jushtastatastena-amritatvameti ||

In that Wheel of Brahman, which is great, which makes all beings live and in which all are placed (at the time of dissolution) this Jeeva migrates. Knowing that prompter and knowing himself also as different from Him and becoming an object of love of that Paramaatman on account of that awareness, he attains immortality.

Tameka nemim trivritam shodasaantam sataardhaaram vimsatipratyaraabhih |
Ashtakaih shadbhih viswaroopaikapaasam trimaarga bhedam dwinimittaikamoham  ||

They realized Him to be of a form of the wheel, having one rim, having three constituents; Having   sixteen ends, having fifty spokes, having twenty middle spokes, having six groups of eight each, having single bond of the cosmic form, having the difference of three paths, and having an illusion that is the cause of two.

The one rim of the wheel is Prakriti, the three constituents are three Gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The sixteen modifications of matter are the sixteen ends. The fifty spokes are the fifty alphabets of Sanskrit and there are 12 months, five seasons, the two Ayanas (Dakhinaayana and Uttaraayana) and one Samvatsara making them 20 mid spokes. The six groups of eight are: I. Eight kinds of wealth—Animaa, Garimaa, Mahimaa, Laghimaa, Praapti, Praakaamyam, Eaastvam and Vasitvam (Hanuman possessed such qualities).  II. The eight directions such as East, West etc. III. The Eight Dikpalakas (Lords of Directions) such as Indra, Varuna and others. IV. The Eight forms of Prakriti (Nature) such as Prithavee, Aaapah, Analah, Vaayuh, Aaakaasah, Mind, Intellect and Ego. V. The Eight kinds of gods such as Brahma, Prajaapati, Devah, Gandharvah, Yakshaah, Raakshasaah, Pitarah and Pisaachaah. VI. Eight kinds of Gunas—Apahatapaapmaa, vijarah, vimrityuh, visokah, vijighatsu, apipaasah, satyasankalpah, satyakaamah.  Or, it may mean one’s eight characteristics—Compaasion, Non- jealousy, Auspiciousness etc.

In Bhagavadgeeta  Supreme Being is defined as : “aksharaanaam akaarosmi”-- of the fifty letters in the divine language Devanagari  he is the first letter short a.  The first letter short a  and the last letter ‘ha’ together with the “nasal  m” constitute aham, which is expressive of  Supreme Reality.  In The Mahaavaakya Aham brahmaa asmi ,  aham stands for Brahman alone consisting of a  first letter and the last letter ha  joining with ardha bindu and enclosing in between all letters constituting  Kshetra (field) of Kshetrjna (Brahman) though translated as ego often in English. 50 spokes in Brahma Chakra therefore stand for 50 letters (13 vowels + 25 Consonants + 8 Halantas + Bindu + Visarga + Ksha + la as in Davala) expressive of Supreme Reality.   Brahman is often expressed as Akshara.

[Nasal m is ardha-chandra bimbam or transcendental sound marked by half-moon and period above as in Om which represents transcendental Brahman]

For this Brahmachakra, Virartpurusha is a fastening bond for keeping this steady. This Viratpurusha is the prime tether. The three paths are Devayaana divine path), Pitruyaana (ancestral Path) and Kshudrajantubhavana (the illusion of the Aatman in the body).

Brahma means "the Entity which is great and has the capacity to make others great."  Brahman  is composed of consciousness and energy. In Sanskrit, Consciousness is known as Purusha and energy is called Prakriti. (Another name for Consciousness is Shiva and Energy   Shakti). Although we can say that Brahman is a composite of consciousness and energy, it must be emphasized that Brahman is a singular entity. Its two "parts" are like the two sides of a piece of paper – they can never be separated. Consciousness never exists independently from the cosmic energy.

Svetasvataropanishad describes Brahmachakra as above.  This is the earliest representation of Paramaatman described metaphorically as a wheel. This should have inspired later Tantric followers to represent Sri Lalita (also known as Srividya) in Srichakra form in Kashmiri Kaula sampradaya.  Srividya means   Absolute Auspicious Knowledge. Some people mistake Srichakra as representing Lakshmi because of the word Sri. Sri here means auspicious. In a recent issue of Brahmavidya, the journal of the Adyar Library, Subhash Kak justifies that the description of Sri Yantra is identical to the yantra described in the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.]

Period, triangle, octagon, two decagon, Tetra decahedron (14-sided geometric figure), eight petals surrounded by sixteen petals, three circles and three lined earth boundary—these constitute Srichakra of Parasakti [three circles boundary; enclosed by four gates of three lines in square pattern as Earth-city]
Bindu trilkona-vasukona dasaarayugma-manvasra naagadala samyukta shodasaaram  Vrittatrayamcha dharaneesadana-trayam cha sreechakra-meta-duditam para-devataayaah 

Like the bell and its sound, like the Sun and its brightness Nirguna Brahman (un-manifest Brahman) appears as Saguna Brahman (Manifest Brahman). Brahman is also the primordial Energy or Sakti. Prakriti or Nature when it is not manifested by activity  it is called Brahman or Sivam. When it creates, sustains and dissolves it is called Sakti or Power says Ramakrishna Parmahamsa. When you identify it as Siva it does not do anything but when you call it Sakti it does all things.

Upanishads mostly talk about Nirguna Brahman (Un-manifest Supreme Being) and this knowledge is known as Brahmavidya. Gaining that knowledge of Brahmavidya and bringing it to practicality is known as Srividya (knowledge of Sakti). Brahman is represented by period (Bindu) in Srichakra. Sakti is represented by triangle—Three Characteristics (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas); trinity—Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; and, three States--Srishthi, Sthiti and Laya(Creation, Sustenance and Dissolution). Everything expressed as three is the characteristics of Sakti. That is why she is called Tripurasundaree, queen of three cities. Sakti mode of worship includes Manta, Yantra and Tantra represented by the three corners of the triangle. The power of Mantra is manifested in Yantra.   

Tantra worship prepares one to focus on open expression of worship, contemplative worship and concentration on Kundalini Power (Yoga of nerves or nadis) as well as other methods of worship.  Panchadasaaksharee or Shodasaaksharee  mantra and Srichakra  Yantra  are the most important in this multi-channeled worship which are described in Soundarylahari. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa worshiping Devi identified his body as Yantra and Devi as Yantree the controller of Yantra. Bhavanopanishad describes the method to meditate focusing our body as Srichakra. If we follow with inward focused  love  Paraskti who is the very embodiment of all deities will show all divines and all faiths and worships end in her only. Moreover as humans we know it is our natural instinct to approach mother than father when we need something or when we are in distress for she is ever caring and never denying.  She is easily accessible too. That is why Parabrahman is worshiped as Paraasakti.


The Srichakra and Sri Yantra are the aspects of devotion in Sri Vidya. It includes Hindu Tantric including Kashmir Kaula Sampradaya philosophies of Saivism.

Three dimensional representation of the Sri Chakra symbolizes Mount Meru. In two dimensional Sri Chakra,   Bindu or Period in its center  symbolizes  the peak of a mountain. If we imagine that the mountain is built up in tiers, each tier is one of the circles of triangles or lotus petals, with the outermost square representing ground level. Now, if we imagine a vertical spine down the center of the mountain, then at each point the spine and a tier intersect, there is a chakra. The peak represents Meru Mountain, abode of Gods. 

Srichakra is bound by a square base with four central exits in the four directions east, west, north and south. The center point is Meru the peak in the three dimensional, projection.    Srichakra is also called Mandala. According to Vasstu Sastra temple is based on a square and outermost Prakara (compound wall) with gates. Some temples have four exits in four directions as in Madura temple, Puri Jagannath Temple etc., or at least two, front and back or East and West.  Srichakra’s outer square has four exits. The Gopuram or tower rises above the Garbagriha or Brahmasthana (in line with it), its tip or Kalasa touching the sky like the peak Meru. Thus Hindu temple symbolizes Srichakra. 48 letters of Sanskrit called Matrikas in Srividya are supposed to represent human body. So also the   Hindu temple is conceived as human body. 

 Srichakra is technically known as a Mandala. Mandala means that which gathers the essential details (mandam laati). Mandala is the concentration of the most significant aspect of the world in which the devotee lives and seeks to carry out his devotion. 48 letters of Sanskrit language is known as Mandala enclosing Purusha and Prakritias Aham. It is the most significant aspect of devotee’s own constitution for the purpose of devotion, and it is also the concentration of the most significant aspect of the interaction of the devotee and devotee’s world. The forces of the Universe are concentrated in the mandala and at the same time the energies of psychophysical constitution of devotee is also centered in the same mandala. Thus the Mandala is a psycho- cosmos-gram, a plan of the visible universe and the perceiving individual.

Mandala is in its nature a complex pattern of several geometrical patterns, each of which has a specific character and a specific function. Sakta Tradition says: Triangle with its apex on top is masculine energy; Triangle with its apex at the bottom is feminine energy; Circle is the cyclical dynamism of consciousness; square is the physical world made up of the elements; Circle of lotus petals is the regenerative of power and principle.

Mandala is frequently referred to as representation of mythical Mountain Meru and our temples are architectural imitation of imaginary Mount Meru. Srichkra is a mandala (Kshetra)which is regarded as the body of the mother goddess known variously as Devi, Tripura Sundari, Lalitaa, Raajaraajeswari, Paraasakti and Paraa-bharttarika. Srichakra is essentially a pattern of interwoven triangles, nine in number, four of which represent the male principles, Isaana, Rudra, Iswara and Sadasiva (Siva Chakra) and five female principles Srividya, Tvaritaa, Rajarajeswari, Tripura and Pancha-banesi (Sakti-chakra). The Triangle has three corners or angles hence the deity which it represents is call Tripura , one that has three fields.  The triangle itself is an emanation from central Bindu or point which is itself un-manifest union of Siva and Sakti or Nirguna Brahman. Nirguna Brahman as a dot emanates to a triangle with three aspects of Srishthi,  Sthiti and Laya hailed by Puranasa as Brhma, Vishnu and Siva.

The central Bindu is in reality is composed of three dots merging into one. One is red, one is white and one is mixed. The red bindu is Kurukulla the Female form, the white bindu is Varaahi the Male form, and the mixed bindu is the union of Shiva & Shakti – the individual as the potential Shri Chakra. Varaahi, the father-form, gives four dhatus to the child and Kurukulla, the mother-form, gives five dhatus to the child. These represent the nine dhatus of the human body.  They also represent Moon, Sun and Agni (fire) devatas. They also represent the three nadis of Kundalini power Ida, Pingala and Sushumna.

The eighth enclosure is called Kaama–kalaa which is the immediate evaluate of central point or Bindu presided over by Tripuramba. Its form is that of a triangle. The three points of the triangle represents three form of the power of Mother Goddess (Ichcha, Kriya and Jnaana). Kameswari symbolizes moon, brahma’s power of creation. Vajresvari symbolizes Sun, Vishnu’s power of preservation. Bhagaa-maalini symbolizes Fire representing Raudri, Rudras power of Dissolution. Although called enclosure it is actually the point which is central to the primary triangle, which is the manifest of the central point. Bindu is actual Mandala or the abstract Uddeeyaana Peetha in which the three Cities (puras) over which Goddess presides representing the three powers and also resides there.   

Sri Chakra is a sacred wheel and is a Yantra called Mahameru. It is formed by nine interlocking triangles that surround and radiate out from the central point called Bindu. It is the junction point between the physical universe and its un-manifest source. It represents the goddess in her form of Shri Lalita or Srividya called Tripura Sundari. She is the beauty of   Bhuhloka, Bhuvar loka, and Suvarloka as chanted in  Gayatree mantra (Bhoor-bhuvas-suvarom). Four isosceles triangles with the apices upwards represent Siva and are Masculine. Five isosceles triangles with the apices downwards, symbolizing female embodiment, Sakti or Feminine. Thus the Sri Yantra also represents the union of Masculine and Feminine Divines. Because it is composed of nine triangles, it is known as the Navayoni Chakra. These nine triangles are of various sizes and intersect with one another, with their apixes being all in one vertical line. In the middle is the power point (bindu), visualizing the highest, invisible, elusive center from which the entire figure and the cosmos expand. The triangles are enclosed by two rows of (8 and 16) petals (dala), representing the lotus of creation and reproductive vital force. The broken lines of the outer frame denote the figure to be a sanctuary with four openings (dwara, gateways) to the regions of the universe". The whole design is placed inside a square field called courtyard or Bhupura, earth stretch in the form of three lines signifying enclosures. Technically triangles are called Chakra and petals are called Kamala (lotuses).

Together the nine triangles are interlaced in such a way as to form 43 smaller (forty-four sometimes counting Bindu central point as a triangle) triangles in a web symbolic of the entire cosmos or a womb symbolic of creation.   This is surrounded by a lotus of eight petals, a lotus of sixteen petals, and an earth square resembling a temple with four doors. The various deities residing in the nine layers of the Sri Yantra are     known as Vimarsaa and the petals are known as Prakaasa. Prakaasa is the principle of Siva, the light of Consciousness, the illumination Purusha. Vimarsa is the Sakti projected principle, the incorporation of the projected world, the feminine principle of Prakriti.  Prakasa is Brahman while his natural propulsion is Vimarsaa. The union of the two principles is the foundation for creation as well as the well (source) into which world dissolves at the end. This expresses non duality of Advaita philosophy. It was all water everywhere as ocean (sagara) before creation which is referred as well here. Vishnu is referred as Saagara in Vishnusahasranama. The Shri Chakra is also known as the nava chakra because it can also be seen as having nine levels.   Each level corresponds to a specific form of the deity  Tripura Sundari along with her mantra.   Tantric experts will give the prescribed mantra for each deity with her specific power.

Supreme Being is called Akshara.  Geetaa says: “Aksharaanaam akaarosmi”—of letters I am the first letter “a”. Sanskrit language has 50 letters—13 vowels + 33 Consonants + two sounds  of Anusvaara and Visargah.  The first letter short “a” is Siva (Brahman in Vaishnava concept)   while the last letter “ha” is Sakti. (Prakriti in Vaishnava concept). Together they constitute “aham” which is expressive of Supreme Reality. The vowels from the short “a” to the unmodified nasal “m’’ fifteen or sixteen in number are regarded as the “male principle” (Siva) the foundation of content-less consciousness.
From vowels the five groups of consonants Guttarals  (ka varga); Palatals (cha varga); Linguals (ta Varga), Dentals (ta  varga) and Labials (pa varga) evolve. Gluttarals represent Panchabhutas or five elements. Palatals represent the Tanmatras of the gluttarals--the pure and bare condition of the same elements. Linguals represent five organs of action—speech, comprehension, loco-motion, excretion and reproduction. Dentals represent five sense organs—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactual. Labials stand for mind (manas), ego (ahamkara), buddhi (Intellect), Prakriti—the feminine principle of action and Purusha—the masculine principle of undifferentiated but inspiring consciousness. These twenty-five consonants represents twenty-five Tattvas defined in Vedanta, twenty-five principles of existence. The other eight consonants called  semi-vowels and sibilants   are evolved from these five groups. Semi-vowels (ya, ra la, va) represent the principles of attachment (raga), wisdom (vidya), Kalaa and Maaya. The last four sibilants (s.a, sha, sa and ha) represent the principles Mahaamaaya, Suddhavidya, Iswara, and Sadasiva. All-together these 50 letters exhaust the universe of existence and experience, of appearance and reality, of the empirical and transcendental orders. The universe bound by the dimension of its un-manifest origin of Siva on the one hand, and by the dimension of its manifestation Sakti or Power on the other hand are illustrated by the alphabet beginning with short “a” and ending with “ha
Lalita Sahasranama uses 32 letters representing Maatrikas out of the 51 letters of Sanskrit to describe Srilalitaa to help the devotee approach the Goddess for benefits.  Those left out are considered harmful. Lalitaa sahasranaama describes Srilalita as “Maatrikaavarnaroopini” and  “Varnaroopini” conveying thereby she  is the very form of all the letters.
Sri Chakra, popularly mistaken to be a symbol of Lakshmi because of the word Sri, is actually a representation of Lalita Mahatripurasundari, an aspect of Parvati Devi.  Shri does not mean Lakshmi, Goddess of wealth in this context. The confusion is often caused because Lakshmi, Saraswati and Ganesha are considered to be children of Parvati in Bengal Sakti worship. The term 'Shri' is used to denote the reverence to be given to this holy Yantra. The prefix 'Shri' denotes that the Yantra is auspicious, beneficent, salutary, benign and conducive to prosperity. The Shri Chakra is a supreme divine instrument in the path of spiritual advancement.


Maatrika Chakra accommodates universe of fifty divine letters in the rays of light, Kalaa which sustains the universe (Please also refer to Brhamachakra with 50 spokes).  The 16 vowels are the sixteen aspects of the moon. These are Thirteen vowels as in the grammar and three more sound symbols, Anuswara (a closing dot above letter “m”), visarga (:) and half nasal sound of   Om or Ardha chandra Bindu (Half-moon dot). The vowels are the sixteen aspects of the Moon in a fortnight and the 16th transcendental aspect which is beyond change (a fortnight is a Paksha of 15 days). The constant from the letter Ka till bha are the 24 aspects of the Sun. The consonants from ma the last letter in Pavarga series to the last are ten (ma, ya, ra, la, va, s.a, sha, sa, ha, ksha). These are the ten aspects of Fire. As we all know Siva has three eyes representing the Sun, the Moon and the Fire. These are his energy aspects or Sakti.  Matrika Chakra comprises of three fields called Tripura, or Trikhanda. Hence the Mother Goddess who symbolizes this Triad is Tripura. She also signifies the three powers that assures her presence—Ichchaa Sakti, Kriyaa Sakti and Jnaanasakti. In her Power of Cognition (Ichchaa Sakti) she is called Vageeswari. In her power of Action (Kriyaa Sakti), she is called Kaameswari.   In her Power of Intention (Jnaana Sakti) she is worshiped as Paraasakti.  Therefore she is called Tripura Sundari.

Tripuraa t Trividhaa  devee  Brahmaa--Vihnu- Eesa roopinee |
Jnaanasaktih Kriyaasaktih Ichchasakty aatmika Priye ||

The loving Mother is Tripuraa with three aspects of Brahmaa, Vishnu and Siva as well as Jnaanasakti (Power of Intellect); Kriyaasakti (Power of Action) and Iccchaasakti (Power of Desire).

Tripurasundari Maha Mantra:  “Om Aim Klim Sauh


Lakshmidhara describes in Sanskrit the details as to how to draw a Srichakra nearest to the description of two dimensions as well pyramidal three dimensions. I have not made an attempt to translate the same either from Tamil or Sanskrit. Many modern religiously devoted mathematicians have tried to make perfect Srichkra of Sri Lalita by following Chakra Nirmana Krama given in Gandharva Tantra as well as on their own to reach the sacred center.   Details are also available in the publication by Ramakrishna Math.  However it is a thrilling experience to any mathematician to contemplate on the role of Pi in the construction of the Pyramid and also the construction of Srichakra.  Both are believed to be efficient generators of Cosmic Power, the Entity transcending the domain of the physical Universe beyond which our mental or other faculties cannot extend.  This role acquires enormous significance and profound meaning when one recalls its obvious connection with modern concept of limited but unbound Space-Time-Spherical Universe.  A satisfactory diagram cannot be produced using line measures   alone. The involvement of pi defies all attempts to produce a perfect diagram of chakra. The ancient thinkers regarded Pi of unending decimals, a number not represented by conventional means in a straight line, as a mystical number (please refer to my discourse on the subject).

Near perfect diagram takes us very close to, though not exactly to the point where the Transcendental Energy manifests itself thereby showing how difficult is to reach Mother Goddess unless She wants us to. Revelation of Srilalita is within the sphere of will (Sameeepya or nearness) of the Spirit but not the end-result of personal efforts to reach Saaujya (complete merger).  In this endeavor even computers are believed to have failed to produce a satisfactory figure. 

Srichakra is mainly composed of a set of five Sakti triangles falling upon a single vertical line. Base neatly coming up horizontally and enmeshed with another set of four Siva triangles, similarly arranged about the same vertical axis of symmetry serving as the diameter of the circle enclosing all the nine angles. This is the main frame. The drawing of the main frame is very complex to bring in 43 isosceles triangles compared to lotuses, rings and outer square.  This main frame of enmeshed triangles, crowns, or apexes of one set in opposition with the other set, is further enveloped first by 8 lotuses and second circle of 16 lotuses within 2/3 circular rings. Finally the whole diagram is housed within an outer square in two lines with four gateways in four directions.

The concept Bindu representing peak Mount Meru takes us to the belief that pyramidal space appear to converge to a point attributed to cosmic power of the Chakra. So, some try to make Pyramidal Srichakra for effective worship.  The Great Pyramid is also apprehended that way.  The triangles of Pyramid and Srichakra are comparable. So the faithful often tries to make Srichakra in Pyramidal form. Our idea of Kalasa with coconut for invoking water deities, Sataari and the Gopuram have allthe pyramidal concept ending in a point for deriving power from cosmos. Also in wedding we keep two conical shaped cereal sweet candies (maniparuppu) for worship representing divine couple.

[Spiritually inclined   mathematicians should refer to the work of Pandit Subrahmanya Sastri and T. R. Srinivasa Ayyangar on Soundarya Lahari, published by the Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai 1977.]


The order and letters of Panchadasee Mantra is made    easy to remember by the following verse with its meaning:

Kaamom yonih kamala vajrapaanir guhaa hasaa maatarisvaabramindrah |
Punarguhaa sakalaa maayaa cha puroochyeshaa visvamaataa aadividyaa ||

[Kaamah= Kamaraja  (ka) ; Yonih =source ( e or aye); Kamalaa=Goddess (ee); vajrapaanih=Indra (la); guha=skanda (hreem); hasaa (hasa); maatarisvaa=air (ka); abhram=sky (ha); indrah=Indra (la); guha =skanda  (hreem);  sakalaa (sa ka la); maayaa (hreem)
The above verse yields Mantra letters as shown within in brackets with the meaning to some of the words.

The three tier mantra is as follows:

(1)  ka   ae (aye)  ee   la |   hreem  |
(2) ha  sa  ka  ha  la   | hreem  |
(3) sa  ka  la  | hreem  |

The first letter Ka represents kaama or cosmic urge to find expression and satisfaction or Brahma the creator. The guttural ik combines with vowel a to make the consonant ka(ik+a=ka)in Sanskrit.  The second letter is e (aye as in eternal). It stands for feminine counterpart of the first letter. The letter as written in Sanskrit resembles a triangle (Ekaaram Konatryaatmakam) and stands for Mother Goddess. The third letter ee stands for Vishnu (eeyate=vyaapnoti that which pervades). Vishnu in his Yoganidra is   Prajna or deep sleep state.
(sushuptaabhimaanee praajnyah). The fourth letter la stands for Earth and it is the symbol of the essential condition of phenomenal existence. Both ka and la appear thrice.

In Pancha sandhya ritual (five daily prayers) the mantra is worshiped as Kaama kaalee at dawn, as Bhuvanesvari at noon, as Chaamundaa at dusk, as Samyakibijika at night and as Kadipanchadsaee at midnight.

“hreem” is the seed syllable representing mother goddess herself. It is the Taantric equivalent of Om. It gives the sense of completion. Hreem is a complete sound like Om consisting of the seed letter sound ha meaning sky or void which is white, the middle letter sound  ra signifying fire  and the color of red and the terminal letter sound  ee signifying Manmatha. The closing sound is half crescent moon dot like in Om suggesting dissolution.  The first three letters also represent Satva, Rajaas and Tamas Gunas or Characteristics.  Ha also stand for Siva and Ra for Sakti and ee for their union. The etymological meaning of the word Hreem is bashful.    Phenomenal world is withdrawn in a state of hiding in Mother Goddess as a child but it has all the potentialities of unfolding and manifesting. This is very powerfully described in Yasod-Krishna episode. The terminal sound am represented by half crescent dot comes into operation only when the seed syllable is articulated and not when written. This is the Vedic style of expression. This complex seed syllable is identified with the supreme mother-goddess whose presence and power are sought as Paraa Devataa to pack into the mantra. Hreem is the seed syllable of Bhuvaneswari in Taantric concept like Om (pranava) in Vedas. It is called taantrikaa-pranava.

The mother Goddess has only fifteen aspects as Panchadasee corresponding to the fifteen phases of the Moon in the fortnight. The sixteenth aspect that Shodashee includes is pervasive in all the phases, in her natural aspect of Sat-Chit-Aananda, Pure Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. Sree(m)  represents pervasive Principle. Shodasee mantra adds Sreem to the Panchadsee only at the end and so it is not altogether different mantra. This SREE is often mistaken to be as referring to Lakshmi of  Srivaishnava Sampradaya(tradition).
[In strict Sakta concept 1 letter name addressed to Goddess is called Pinda; 2 letter names addressed are called Kartaree; 3 letters Beeja and only 10 or more letters constitute Mantra. That is why Devi addressed with fifteen or sixteen letter mantras as above]


Swami Tapasyanada gives the following guidelines as to how to keep and worship Srichakra at homes:

 “Sri Chakra can be kept in a house as a sacred article, without any worship in the same way one would keep a picture of a Deity or Mother Mary.  Some denominations of Christians worship Kanya Kumari, since they believe Kanya-Kumari to be the Virgin Mary. It could be worshiped once a year, periodically, or on special occasions like Navaratri or daily or whenever one likes. Sunday in conjunction with Pushya Star, one’s own Guru’s birthday, the day of one’s own birthday, Ashtami (the 8th day of the bright half of the moon), or the 14th day of the bright half of the lunar month. Friday   in conjunction with full-moon day is very special.

Sri Chakra can be drawn on paper with pen and ink, or on the floor or plank, bark, or colored flour to turmeric, kumkum, ashes of yajna and consigned to the river or sea, after the puja is done. SriChakra can be drawn on gold, silver, copper leaf or plate. One drawn on a plate made of five metals (pancha loha) is considered very powerful. The metals are gold, silver, copper, brass, and tin. Sri Chakra can be used to meditate on its own or with other deities.        Scriptures even prescribe how to draw Srichakra on paper which tantric priests can tell or guide the devotee,

Srichakra drawn on a plate, foil or disc or gold, silver, copper or any other material can be worn on a person as talisman. Sri Chakra is to be always kept flat to the ground and not upright or slanting, except when used as a talisman or as an ear-ring or a ring. It should never be used as a wall hanging. There are lots of commercial houses selling the Chakra as wall hangings. We should not buy them as the hand drawn Srichakra with devotion only imparts sanctity to the Chakra.

It can be effectively used for correcting defects of the north direction of health, fortune, career, and money  and northeast (energetically the most sacred and important area of any building). When placed in the northeast, it improves the spatial energies of the whole house. Defects in the northeast and north are the most serious, so the Meru Chakra is a valuable corrective tool of Vedic yantra technology. Even if your home or office has been built according to Vastu, the Gold Meru Chakra is a great energetic blessing that enhances the flow of vibrant energy of health and abundance.

SriChakra is the most calm, harmless, genteel and non-aggressive of all the Yantras. In fact a SriChakra is helpful where there are fierce elements disturbing the peace or creating bad effects, in order to reduce the effect. One should approach the Divine Mother without any reservations as Mother is the most benevolent, caring and loving person In the world.

One need not express one’s want, difficulties, complaints, problems to her. Leave the options to her for she knows your needs better and will give you what you need and at the same time she will also protect you‘’.

Sri chakra raajya sannidhyaam griha disha nivaarinee |sarvaanishtha prasmanam sarva sowbhagya kaaranam ||

The king of all Yantras, by its very presence is enough to ward off all evils and afflictions of household   and to bring good luck and fortune. By construction of this Yantra   one acquires wealth and prosperity.
All said and done to draw Srichakra is almost an impossible task for many to accomplish the goals. Srichakra facilitates one to have Aakaasa Tattva or heavenly aspects to gain vital power without any personal initiative”.


Jagannatha is described as the famous deity of Odra or Utkala in Tantrik texts like Kalika Purana, Rudrayamala, Brahmayamala, Tantrayamala. In the Tantric tradition Jagannatha is worshipped with the Bija Mantra Klim and sits on the Mahakali Yantra as Mahakalika, similarly Balabhadra is worhsipped with the Bija Mantra Srim and sits on the Tara Yantra as Ugratara, similarly Subhadra is worshiped with the Bija Mantra Hreem and sits on the Bhuvaneswari Yantra as Bhuvaneswari. According to the Mahanirvana Tantra:
Ugratara shulapani subhadra bhuvaneswari  | Niladrau tu sakhsat jagannatha dakshinakalika
“In Niladri, Shulapani or Balabhadra is worshipped as Tara (the second Mahavidya), Subhadra is worshipped as Bhuvaneswari (the fourth Mahavidya) and Jagannatha is himself Dakshina Kalika (the first or the Adi Mahavidya.”
Basic Mantra that is used in the Jagannath temple for daily worshipas in Gowdeeya Vaishnava Tradition is as follows:
Kleem krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya swaha
Kleem kamadevaya vidmahe pushpa banaya dhimahi tanno ananga prachodayat
You may find in the mantra  the Bija mantra kleem  is used in the basic mantra as in Devi worship. Siva-Sakti concept in Tantric Saivism is Visualized as Radha-Krishna concept in Gaudiya Vaishnavism.

Jaganntha Kshetra is called Srikshetra by Tantric followers. Puri Jagannaath Temple has also four gates as in Srichakra to support the contention of Tantric followers. To highlight this identification, the deities of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra always wear Saris and a nose ornament made of flowers.  In Srikshetra on the north of the temple the Koili Baikuntha is the Deva Smashana, where Smashana Chandi resides. The animal sacrifices (also called Bali) are also an important aspect of the Sakta worship. In the Jagannath temple, in front of Goddess Bimala, fish is cooked in a temporary make-shift kitchen and animals (especially goats) are sacrificed during the Mahasaptami, Mahashtami and Mahanavami in Durga Puja.


Srichakra is the symbolic representation of the Sri Vidya. Among the various texts that deal with the concept and practice of Sri Vidya. Bhaavanopanishad is one of the most ancient. It is a part of the Atharva   Veda. Proper understanding of Bhaavanopanishad  is an indispensable aid to understand the practical and spiritual implications of Sri Chakra.  It is the most appropriate Upanishad chanted during the  worship of Srichkra.
Bottom of Form

 Om bhadram karnebhih srinuyaama  devaah |   bhadram  pasyemaakshbhiryajatraah | sthirair angaih   tushtvaa sastanoobhih  | vyasema devahitam  yadaayuh | swasti na indro vriddhasravaah  | swastih nah pooshaa viswavedaah | swasti nah taarkshyo arishtanemih | swasti noe brihaspatir dadhaatu |Om saantih saantih saantih

Om !  Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good;
Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good.
With steady limbs, with bodies, praising,
Let us enjoy the life blessed by the gods.
May Indra, of wide renown, grant us well-being!
May Soorya, and all-gods, grant us well-being!
May Garuda, of unhampered F flight grant us well-being! 
May Brihaspati, the divine Guru grant us well-being!
 OM! Peace! Peace!   Peace!

Aatmaanam-akhanda-mndalaakaaram –aavritya sakala brhmaanda-mandalam svaprakaasam dhyaayet   | sri guru sarvakaaranabhootaa saktih ||1 ||

1. Let us meditate on the Supreme Being who limitlessly shines with his own effulgence all around. The Holy preceptor  is  alone the Power  that is the cause of all.  

Tena navarandhra roopodeha || 2 ||

2. Therefore the body with its nine orifices is that form of the prceptor.

Nava  chakra –roopam Srichakram ||3 ||

3. It is the sacred Wheel in the form of nine wheels.

Vaaraaho pitruroopaa kurukulla balidevataa maataa || 4 ||

4. The Power of the Boar (deity of elements)   is  paternal;  Kurukulla, the deity of  animal sacrifice (bali devata), is maternal.

Purushaartaah Saagaraah || 5 ||

5. The four Purusharthas (human goals)  Dharma, Artha,  Kaama and Moksaha   are the oceans  on all four sides.

Deho navaratna dveepah || 6 || 

6. This body is an island of nine gems.

Tvagaadisaptadhaatu roma samyuktah || 7 ||

7. The seven constituents of the body like flesh, blood, tissues, marrow, nerves, bones with  shiny hairs are also nine gems.

Sankalpaah kalpatarava-stejah kalpakodyaanam || 8||

8. Resolutions are the wish-granting   divine tree Kalpaka. The inner light of mind is the garden of Kalpaka trees.

Rasanayaa bhaavyamaanaa madhuraamla tikta-katu-kashaaya lavana-rasaah shad-ritavah  || 9 ||

9. The six seasons like spring, summer etc.,  are the tastes, namely sweet, sour, bitter, pungent, salty  and astringent  which are realized by the tongue.

Jnaanam-arghyam jneyam havir-jnyaataa hotaa jnaatru jneyaanaam abheda –bhaava-nam Srichakra-poojanam || 10 ||

10. Knowledge is the material for worship (water oblation); the object of knowledge is the oblation (sacrificial twigs); the knower is the one who performs the sacrifice. The meditation on the identity of the three, knowledge, its object, and the knower, is the worship offered  to the Srichakra, the auspicious-wheel.     .

Niyatih sringaaraadayorasaa animaadayaah || 11 ||

11. Destiny and sentiments like love (nine sentiments) are the miraculous attainments like  atomicity 
(The ten siddhi ideals like anima, garima), etc.

Kama=krodha-lobha-moha-mada-maatsarya-punya-paapa-mayyabrahmyaadyashta-saktayah ||12 ||

12. Lust, anger, greed, delusion, elation, envy, merit, demerit emotions--these human emotions  constitute the eight powers of Maatrikaa (Braahmee, Maheshvari, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Varaahi,  Raudri, Charmamunda and  Kalasamkarsini).

Aadhaara -navakam mudrasaktayah || 13 ||

13. The nine abodes (six  Kundalini power like Mooladhara etc., the top Akula sahasra and the bottom Kulasahasra  and Indrayoni, the inner tongue  making them nine ) are the powers of the mystic gestures.

Prithivy-ap-tejo-vaayavy-aakaasa-srotra-tvak-chakshur-jihva-ghraana-vaak-paani—paada=payoo-upasthaani manovikaaraah kaamaakarshinyaadi shodasa saktayah || 14 ||

14. The earth, water, fire, air, ether, ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose, speech, feet, hands, the organs of evacuation and generation and the modification of mind are the sixteen powers such as the pulling power of lust etc.  

Vachanaadaanaagamana visargaananda-haanopaadaanopekshaakhya budhyo-ananga-kusumaadyashtau ||   15 ||

15. Speech, grasp, motion, evacuation, generation (functions of motor organs), and the attitudes of rejection, acceptance and apathy  (the functions of mind)  are  the eight   entities of  the     flower arrow of love (of body-less Madana)   etc.   

Alambushaa –kuhur-visvodaraa vaarana hasti-jihvaa yasovatee payasvinee gaandharee pooshaa sankhineesaraswatee idaa-pingalaa sushumnaacheti chaturdasa naadyah sarva sankshobhinyaadi chaturdasa saktayah || 16 ||

16. Alambusha, kuhu, visvodara, vaarana, hastijihva, yasovati, payasvini, gandhari, pusa, sankhini, sarasvati, ida, pingala and sushumna – these fourteen arteries are the fourteen powers of  the All-Exciting (sarva sankshobhini), etc. 

Praana-apaana-vyaana-udaana-samaana-naaga-koorma-krikardevadatta dhanjayaa dasa vaayavah sarvasiddhipradaadi bahirdasaara devataah || 17 ||

17. The five vital breaths (Prana, Apaana, Vyaana, Udaana and Samaana) and the five minor breaths (Naaga,  Koorma, Krikara, Devadatta, and Dhanjaya) are the ten divinities of the outer spokes, (styled) Sarvasiddhiprada.
Etad-vaayu–samsargakopaadhi bhedena rechakah paachakah soshako daahakah plaavaka iti praana-mukhyatvena panchadhaa jatharaagnir-bhavati || 18 ||

18. The digestive fire (Praana, Apaana, Vyaana, Udaana and Samaana becomes fivefold through distinctions based on its association with this pre-eminent breath. (They are) what ejects, what cooks, what dries, what cooks and what inundates (The five functions  of  stomach fire).

Kshaaraka uddhaarakah ksobhako jrimbhako mohaka iti naaga praadhaanyena panchavidhaaste manushyaanaam dehagaa bhakshya bhojya-soshya-lehya peyaatmaka-panchvidham-annam paachayanti || 19 ||

19. Owing to the dominating  functions  of the minor breath, these (fires) in the human body come to be styled as the corroder, the ejector, the agitator, the yawner and the deluder. They promote digestion of the fivefold food: eaten, chewed, sucked, licked and imbibed.  

Etaa dasavahnikalaah sarvajnayadyaa antardasaaradevatah || 20 ||

20. These ten aspects of Fire are the ten divinities of the inner spokes known as Sarvajna, etc.

Seethoshna-sukhadukha-ichchaah sattvam rajas-tamom vasinyaadisaktayo-ashtau || 21 ||

21. The qualities of cold, heat, pleasure, pain, desire, sattva, rajas and tamas (Trigunas) are the eight powers (eight weapons in the hands of Durga), Vasini, etc.

Sabdaadi tanmaatraah  panchpushpa-baanaah || 22 ||

22. The five rudimentary  sound, touch, appearance, sentiment and smell   are the flowery shafts in the hands of the Mother Goddess.
Mana ikshudhanuh || 23 ||

23. Mind is the bow made of sugarcane (The bow in the hands of Lord of Love).

Raagah paasah || 24 ||

24. Attachment is the rope (that binds).

Dwesho ankusah ||25 ||
25. Aversion is the goad.

Avyakta-maha-dahankaaraah kaameswaree-vajreswaree-bhagamaalinyo-antastrikonagaa devataah  ||26 ||

26. The Un-manifest, the Great, and the Principle of Egoism  alone  are the divinities of the inner triangle  presided over by Kameshvari, Vajreshvari and Bhagamalini.

Nirupaadhika-samvideva  Kaameswarah  | | 27 ||

27. Absolute awareness, verily  is  Kameshwara.
Sadaananda poornah svaatmaiva paradevataa Lalitaa || 28 ||

28. The supreme divinity, Lalita, is one’s own blissful Self.

Lauhitya-metasya-sarvasya vimarsah || 29 ||

29. Of all this, the distinctive apprehension is the red glow (Jeeva, Siva, Sakti etc.)

Ananya chittatvena cha siddhih || 30||

30. Perfection (ensues from) exclusive concentration of the mind.

Bhaavanaayaah kriyaa upachaarah  ||31 ||

31. In the performance of meditation consist (various acts of) respectful service.

Aham tvam-asti-naasti-kartavyam-akartavyam-upaasitavyam-iti vikalpaanaam-aatmani vilaapanam homah  || 32 ||

32. The act of oblation is the merger in the Self of distinctions like I, Thou, Existence, non-Existence, the sense of duty and its negation, and  that is the oblation of worship.

Bhaavanaa-vishyaanaam-abhedbhaavanaa tarpanam || 33 ||

33. Propitiation (Tarpana) is the thought of identity of (all) objects of imagination.

Panchadasa   tithiroopena  kaalasya parinaama-avalokanam  || 34 ||

34. The view of time’s periodic transformation in  the form  fifteen days (fortnight of a lunar month) points to the fifteen eternal (divinities).

Evam muhurta  tritayam muhurta  dwitayam muhurta maatram vaa bhaavanaaparo jeevanmukto bhavati  sa eva sivayogi iti gadyate  || 35 ||

35. Thus meditating for three segments of the day called muhurta, or two, or even for a single segment one becomes liberated while living; such a liberated one is called  Siva-Yogi.

Kaadimatena-antas-chakra bhaavanaah pratipaaditaah || 36 ||

36. Meditations on the inner-wheel have been discussed (here) following the tenets of Sakta concept  Kaadi.

Ya evam veda so-atharva siro-adheete || 37 ||

37. One who knows that    is a scholar of   Atharvasiras who has thoroughly learnt the truth.

Concluding Peace prayer is same as in the invocation prayer: 

“Bhadram karnebhih…… Brihaspatir dadhaatu  | Om Shantih!Om Shantih!Om Shantih !

Om ! Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good;
Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good.
With steady limbs, with bodies, praising,
Let us enjoy the life allotted by the gods.
May Indra, of wide renown, grant us well-being;
May Pusan, and all-gods, grant us well-being.
May Tarksya, of unhampered movement, grant us well-being.
May Brihaspati grant us well-being.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Ityupanishat  ||

Here ends the Bhaavanopanishad, included in the Atharva-Veda.


Shodashaaksharee Srividya of Srilalita

Sivah saktih kaamah kshiti-ratha ravih seetakiranah |
Smaro hamsah sakras-tadanu cha paraa-maara-hridayah ||
Amee hrillokhaabhis-tisribhir-vasaaneshu  ghatitaa |
 Bhajante varnaaste tava janani naamavayavataam ||     (Soundaryalahari, couplet 32)

Oh Mother! Siva’s  seed letter Ka is denoted by  the  word Siva; Sakti’s  seed letter  ae is denoted by Saktih; Manmatha seed letter ee denoted by kaamah; Earth’s seed letter  la by Kshiti; then, the Sun seed letter ha by  Ravi;  Seed letter sa of Moon of cool rays by Chandra; Manmatha’s seed letter Ka by smarah;    Aakaasa (ether layer) seed letter  in Hamsa mantra ha as in hamsa; Indra’s seed letter la by sakrah; then after, Para seed letter sa by paraa-maara-harayah; Manmath’s seed letter ka and Hari’s seed letter la by (ammee te varnaah)--these letters of yours along with  Bhuvaneswari seed letter hreem at the end of each group being added  present  them as parts of your Mantra.

Here   Panchaaksharee (fifteen letter) Kaadividya Mantra which has first   letter Ka   is secretly conveyed.  The first group is ka, ae, ee, la, hreem. It blaze  like the fire at the time of  cataclysm starts from Moolaadhara nadi (Kundalini Power) and touches Anaahata Nadi. The second group of Kaamaraja ha, sa, ka, ha, la, hreem, shines like  thousand Suns all at once starts from Anahata Nadi  touches Aaajnyaa chakra. The third Sakti group sa, ka, la, hreem shines like thousand moons and starting with Ajnyaachakra spreads over the entire spot  till  middle of eyebrows.  These three groups of letters are to be contemplated upon in sequence one above the other as gold layers. The sound that starts at Moolaadhara penetrates through these letters like the string that passes through beads. The seed letter Hreem of anuswara bindu (Crescent moon period) in all the three groups  are called Vahni-kundalinee, Soorya-kundalinee and Soma- kundalinee, Kundalinee powers named after the deities Agni, Soorya and Chandra.

The five Elements, Ether (sky), Air, Fire, water and Earth  came out of the five Vowels in the Panchadasaaksharee (fifteen seed letter) Mantra. Ether’s characteristic is sound only; characteristics of air are2:  Sound + touch; charecteristics of Fire are 3: sound + touch + form; characteristics of water are 4: sound + touch + form +taste; characteristics of Earth are five: sound + touch +form + taste + solidity.  Together they make 15 characteristics which is the elaboration of fifteen seeded Panchadasaaksharee. 

The first Vagbhava group in the mantra should be meditated upon as the face of Srilalita; The middle  Kamaraja group should be meditated upon as trunk portion of the body of Srilalita; and the last  Sakti group should be meditated upon as the portion  below the hip of Srilalita’s body.

SRIVIDYA: It is said that in addition to the three tiers in Gayatree mantra additionally a fourth tier “paro rajase savatom” should be chanted to reap the full benefits. The fourth tier of Srividya of Chandrakaala group Ramaa is seed letter Sreem.  With Sreem the mantra becomes sixteen lettered shodashaakree Mantra. Only then this Mantra of fifteen letters becomes complete.  That is why the sixteen letters seed mantra is called the secret knowledge Srividya. The four tiers respectively represent the Wakeful (jaagriti), Dream (swapna), Deep Sleep (sushupti) and the Fourth (tureeya) State described in Vedanta. These correspond to A, U, M  and the Crescent-moon period of the Pranava mantra AUM.


Kundalini Yoga

Kundalini yoga is also termed as Srividyaa.  If the worship of Sakti is done with the Mantra, Yantra and Tantra it is believed that it will arouse the mystic power Kundalini which is said to be coiled like a serpent at the base of the spinal cord. Reference to this is made in the main text. There are six chakras or nerve plexus or mystic nerve centers in the human body. They are symbolized as lotuses that you see in Srichakra. These are:

       CHAKRA                            LOCATION IN THE SPINAL CORD                      LOTUSES

  1. Moolaadhaara       Pelvic region; abode of Kundalini where it is lying dormant   4 Petals
  2. Swaadistana          In the groin and above Moolaadhaara                                      6 Petals
  3. Manipura               at the navel                                                                               10 Petals
  4 Anaahata                in the heart                                                                               12 Petals
  5. Visuddha               in the throat                                                                              16 Petals
  6. Ajnaa                     between the eye brows                                                            18 Petals
  7. Sahasraara             in the brain and is final                                                         1000 Petals  


1. Anna, Soundaya Lahari, Ramkrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai, India (in Tamil)

2. Ananta Rangacharya, Principal Upanishads, Bangalore India.

3.  Wikipedia, Swami and other internet Sources

4. Ramachandra Rao, S.K., Srividya –Kosa, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, India

5. Srinivasan N .R.,   Sri Vidya, Sri Lalitaa and Baala Tripuraa, <>

6. Mukundan T. K., A Concept of Hinduism, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India.

7. Rahul Acharya, Tantric Concept of Jagannath Worship, Lecture delivered at Sri Ganesha Temple, Nashville, TN, USA

 [This is a prepared lecture compiled from above references and others for a discourse at Sri Ganesha Temple, Nashville , TN, USA, and to benefit those who are not able to attend the same in person. You are free to download and use it for your reading and reference as well as circulate to others to spread the wisdom of Vedas and Hindu values which good act will be appreciated.]