Monday, June 26, 2017


(Personal collections for Propagation   by N. R. Srinivasan, Nashville, TN, USA, June 2017)

Vedas are one of the greatest gifts to humanity that India or the world has ever produced. A few Vedic mantras like the Gayatri mantra are commonly practiced that have afforded great reverence, yet the rest of the ten thousand verses of the Rigveda are seldom examined or recited. I have broadened your vision by   quoting some moreVeda mantras and giving their deeper meaning as I learnt from great Indian Gurus  for your awakening to the above facts.  Professor P.R. Mukundan from  RIT  in USA is also  presently engaged to research and preserve old Rig Vedic manuscripts.   

May I draw your attention to a Rigveda mantra which I chant daily during Veda-parayana of Mahnarayana upanishd contained in Dharavidya (knowledge of Brahman):

“Chatvari sringa trayo asya pada dve sirse sapta hastaso asya, Rigveda IV.58.3.” This means Brahman has Four  horns, three feet, two heads and seven hands.  This only suggests Brahman is  Kaalpurusha or Time, symbolizing  the Yuga number or cosmic age of 4,320,000,000 years which is one Kalpa. We are now in Svetavaraha Kalpa. The mantra suggests only the numbers in order 4, 3, 2 and seven zeros but  we must understand   the true depth of the riddle language of Vedas which is not easy.

Here are my six most popular discourses posted on the blog Hindu Reflections. These focus on Veda mantras used in our daily temple and home worships. Besides I have also circulated to you discourses   explaining mantras chanted during Nitya karmas and Naimittika karmas (daily and specific duties like Sandhyavanadana). It is interesting to note these six discourses are most popular with readers from even India. This shows how starved these religious followers are about the deeper meaning of the mantras they use in worships and rituals fed up with just parrot chanting. It looks our priests and parents are just focusing on mechanically chanting these mantras just to repeat after them with no focus on spirituality.  I am thankful to Google Research for this amazing revelation and so you should be:

Encouraged by the same I thought it beneficial to send to you my collection of Mantras from Vedas and Upanishads collected for my day-to-day reference with meanings. There may be some repetition of them in my collection or there may be different rendering of their meanings. Also note that I have introduced to you profusely several Mantras in most of my discourses that I may not have   included in this dispatch.  Nevertheless these are gems for ready reference to reveal the wisdom of Vedas both from spiritual uplifting as well as practical application to life. 

 If there is one mass of scriptures that has inspired and sustained the Hindus over the millennia, it is Vedas in general and Upanishads in particular.  By advocating the ultimate triumph of the spirit over matter, of man over nature, the Upanishads have created, strengthened and preserved a great tradition of spirituality.  The influence of Vedic wisdom on the religious-cultural life other nations far beyond the boundaries of India is visibly seen and felt.  Therefore we come across many catch words from Vedas and Upanishads being translated or used as such as mottos by several Nations in public as well private institutions.  I have gone at length over hundreds of Veda Mantras explaining their deeper meanings during my spiritual and religious discourses. In this endeavor I have been collecting several mantras from Vedas and Upanishads for my day-to-day guidance and inspiration.  Many of them I have explained in my exclusive discourses such Veda Mantras used in worships, rituals and sacraments as well as discourses on individual Upanishads. I had however in my collection many mantras that perhaps I have not conveyed to you as full Mantras with meaning.  I wish to share them too with you all of which I have collected as gems from Vedas and Upanishads. I have not included popular hymns used in worships as well as hymns from Bhagavad Gita and Puranas here about which also I have spoken at Length at appropriate contexts.  This is my concluding discourse on Vedas and Upanishads posted on the Blog of Hindu Reflections.

Upanishad means annihilating the ignorance completely. It leads the spiritual seeker nearer to god. The Mantras of Vedas and Upanishads awaken holy thoughts in the mind of spiritual aspirant. When the mantras are chanted with intonations, a divine atmosphere is created with holy vibrations all around. When chanted understanding their deeper meaning one is exposed to the wisdom of Vedas and its practical   application to life while being spiritually elevated.  This calls for initial training under a Vedic scholar or priest.  One who recites Mantras with intonations attains highest merit purifying his body and mind. Most thrilling and spiritually gratifying Mantras from   Vedas and Upanishads are being chanted every   day by religious Pundits and Spiritual Gurus. I have collected few of them and bringing them to your attention with their meanings.  Those of you who had no opportunity to study Vedas or can’t find time can still be benefited by chanting these Gems of Veda Mantras with proper understanding and appropriate chanting with intonations.  They will be more beneficial, peaceful and educative than parrot chanting of slokas or Nama Japas.

Samyak varnaprayogena brahmaloke maheeyate—one who recites mantras with intonations attains highest merit purifying his body and mind.



The Heavenly beauty of God is unsurpassed. The sages of olden times always perceived his sweetness. Their incessant prayers to the Ruler of the Universe was:

Madhu vaataa ritaayate | madhu ksharanti sindhavah | maadveer nah santvoshadheeh | madhu naktamutoshasi | madhumat paarthivam rajah | madhu dyaurastu nah pitaa | madhmaanno vanaspatih | madhumam astu sooryah | maadhveer gaavo bhavantu nah ||

O Thou Lord of the Universe! As the wind blows showering sweetness, as the ocean and the rivers are emanating sweetness, so may the paddy and barley spread sweetness over us by growing in abundance; may the nights and dawns , even the dust particles of the earth be full of sweetness; may the high and glorious sky like a father shower sweetness over us; unto us; may  the sun radiate sweetness; may all our cows be all sweetness to us by giving us very sweet milk!                                                              (Taittareeya Aranyaka)

Eekashe hi visva  ubhayasya raajan| You are the Lord of Wealth of both the Worlds, Heaven and Earth (Rig Veda VI -19-10)
Bhuvo janasya divasya raajaa parthivatsya jagastesha sandrik | O The Giver of Light! You are the king of the divine folks as well as the people on Earth (Rigveda VI- 22-9)
Patir-babhoota-asamoe janaanaameko viswasya bhuvanasya raajaa | You are the  unparalleled sole  king of all entities  of the world.
Yena labhyas-tapasaa hyesha aatmaa samyak jnaanena brahmacharyena nityam /
Antah sareere jyotirmayo hi subhro yam pasyanti yatayah ksheenadoshaah || (Mu.Up.)

This Resplendent  Supreme  whom the monks divested of all defects see, who is within the body, who is of the form of Knowledge and who is without any defilement whatsoever is to be attained through Meditation, through Truth, Penance and  True knowledge arising out of scriptures and constant continence (nityakarmas).

Yastu vijnaanavaan bhavati samanskah sadaasuchih | sat tu tadpdamaapnoti yasmaat bhooyo na  jaayate || (Ka. Up.)

He who is endowed with discriminating intellect and has his mind purified by various disciplines and who remains always pure attains that highest goal from where he will not be born. He will be blessed with eternal peace and happiness.       

Yad vedaadau swara prokto vedaante cha prathisahthitah |
Tasya prakritileenasya yah parasya maheswarah ||

The Pranva (OM) is to be recited at the commencement of recital of Vedas and also at the end of it.  The letter “akaara” into which it merges is the source of it. That which is denoted by Om is the Supreme Lord or Parabrahman.

Indhram vardhanto apturah krinvanto vishwam aryam Apaghnanto aravnah -- Rigveda (Mandala 9, Sutra 63, Mantra 5)
Meaning: Increase your energies, make the whole world noble and destroy the evil ones.

Nāsadāsīn no sadāsīt tadānīṃ nāsīd rajo no vyomāparo yat |
Kimāvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmannambhaḥ kimāsīd ghahanaṃ ghabhīram || 1 ||

Na mṛtyurāsīdamṛtaṃ na tarhi na rātryā ahna āsītpraketaḥ |
Anīdavātaṃ svadhayā tadekaṃ tasmāddhānyan na paraḥ kiṃ canāsa || 2 ||

Tama āsīt tamasā ghūḷamaghre.apraketaṃ salilaṃ sarvamāidam |
Tuchyenābhvapihitaṃ yadāsīt tapasastanmahinājāyataikam || 3 ||

Kāmastadaghre samavartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṃ yadāsīt |
Sato bandhumasati niravindan hṛdi pratīṣyākavayo manīṣā || 4 ||

Tiraścīno vitato raśmireṣāmadhaḥ svidāsī |
Retodhāāsan mahimāna āsan svadhā avastāt prayatiḥ parastāt || 5 ||

Ko addhā veda ka iha pra vocat kuta ājātā kuta iyaṃvisṛṣṭiḥ |
Arvāgh devā asya visarjanenāthā ko veda yataābabhūva || 6 ||

Iyaṃ visṛṣṭiryata ābabhūva yadi vā dadhe yadi vā na |
Yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman so aṅgha veda yadi vā naveda || 7 ||

Then   even nothingness was not, nor existence.  There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In what keeping? Was there then cosmic water, in depths unfathomed?
Then there were neither death nor immortality, nor was there then the torch of night and day.
The One breathed mindlessly and self-sustaining.   There was that One then, and there was no other.
At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness. All this was only un-illumined water. 
That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, arose at last, born of the power of heat. 
In the beginning desire descended on it- that was the primal seed, born of the mind. The sages who have searched their hearts with wisdom know that which is, is akin to that which is not.
And they have stretched their cord across the void, and know what was above, and what below.  Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces. Below was strength, and over it was impulse. 
But, after all, who knows, and who can say whence it all came, and how creation happened?
The gods themselves are later than creation, so who knows truly whence it has arisen?
Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows or may be even he does not know.
--Rigveda 10-129-1 to 7
[But, after all, who knows, and who can say whence it all came, or how this creation came about? The gods, themselves, came later than this world's creation, so who truly knows whence it has arise. Whence all creation had its origin, only He, whether He fashioned it or not. He, who surveys it all from highest heaven-He knows. Or perhaps even He does not!}
Ritam cha satyam cha abheeddatta tapaso adhyajaayata--Rigveda 10/190/1-3

he Right and the Truth were generated from the all-illuminating Supreme, by His Resolve.

As a corallory one who focuses on Dharma (Ritam) and Trurth (Sathyam) attains the status of Brahman. (Upanishads often say ritam sathyam all means Brahman). True following of Dharma by firm Resolve (Tapas) gets one the status of Brahman.

According to Bhattabhaskara Ritam implies the totality of all sentient and Satyam individual souls their source, the Supreme, is indicated by “abheeddhaat tapasah” resolve of the all-illuminating Supreme.

This is from Aghamarshana mantra that is used in the daily Sandhyaavandana.  This mantra    is    said to get rid one’s sins by penance and attain Supreme Brahman.

Rita(ga)m Satyam param brahma purusham  Krishna pingalam |Oordhavaretam viroopa-aksham viswaroopaaya vai namah ||(Narayana sooktam;  MNU)

Obeisance unto the Supreme Brahman, the Lord of the Cosmic Form, who is all-pervading, immutable, the one who has an auspicious form of black tawny color. Who has risen above all changes, whho has eyes that are dissimilar in nature.

[The color of the auspicious form of the Lord is a happy blend of dark blue with thwe golden hue of goddess Lakshmi. The color of the body of the Lord is of the color of asati flower. Viroopaaksha means the two eyes of the lords are not the same. Scientifically also the two eyes have different focal lengths in order to visualize 3-D effect. One eye is like fire and the other one is cool as snow. Scriptures also often describe the two eyesa of the Lord as Sun and Moon.   The word Retas is taken in the sense of change and groerth which a sed undergoes and therefore it implies to the eolc ving Universe. Urdhvaretas is the Divine Principle transcending the evolutionary process of creation. Satyam=Sat+thi+yam. Sat=immortal; thi=mortal; yam=tht nwhich is regulated, Hence Sathyam alsao refers to Creator. Ritam also coneys the meaning of Absolute Truth that is Parabrahman. “Riteeyate viswam anugrihnaati iti Ritam”—the Compassionate of the Divine entity who is Sathyam becuse   He is conducive to the highest good.

Ajyeshtaaso akanishthaasa sama bhraataro vaavradhuh Saubhaagaaya / (Rigveda 5-60-5)

There is none high or low amongst you. You are all brethren and therefore, strive all together to attain prosperity. (Rig Veda 50, 60, 5).

Yac cid dhi śaśvatām asīndra sādhāraṇas tvam | taṃ tvā vayaṃ havāmahe ||

As, O God, Thou art forever the common Lord of all alike, as such we invoke thee now. (Rig Veda 4, 32, 13)

Sadhrīmā yanti pari bibhratīḥ payo viśvapsnyāya pra bharanta bhojanam |
Samāno adhvā pravatāmanuṣyade yastākṛṇoḥ prathamaṃ sāsyukthyaḥ ||

All who can walk are equally entitled to the use of paths and roads. (Rig Veda 2, 13, 2)

Katarā pūrvā katarāparāyoḥ kathā jāte kavayaḥ ko vi veda |
Viśvaṃ atmanā bibhṛto yad dha nāma vi vartete ahanī cakriyeva || 1-185-1 ||

Which of these two came earlier, which came later? How did they come to birth? Who, O Seers, can discern it? They contain within them all that has a name, while days and nights revolve as on a wheel.
Bhūriṃ dve aacharantī charantaṃ padvantaṃ gharbhamapadī dadhāte |
Nityaṃ na sūnuṃ pitrorupasthe dyāvā rakṣataṃ pṛthivī no abhvāt ||1-185- 2 ||

You two, though motionless and footless, nurture; a varied offspring having feet and movement. Like parents clasping children to their bosoms, O Heaven and Earth, deliver us from evil!

Saṃghachamāne yuvatī samante svasārā jāmī pitrorupasthe |
Abhijighrantī bhuvanasya nābhiṃ dyāvā ... ||1-185-5 ||

These twin maidens (day and night), like two friendly sisters nestled close together, rest in their parents' bosom and kiss together the center of the world. O Heaven and Earth, deliver us from evil!

Sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt |
Sabhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvātyatiṣṭhad daśāṅghulam || 10-90-1 ||

Such is His magnificence, but the Supreme Being is even greater than this; all beings are a fourth of Him, three-fourths--His immortality--lie in heaven.

Tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ |
Tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi ||10-90-4 ||

Three-fourths of the Supreme Being ascended; the fourth part came here again and again, and, diversified in form, it moved to the animate and the inanimate world.

[All this is He-what has been and what shall be. He is the Lord of immortality. Though He has become all this, in reality He is not all this. For truly, He is beyond the world. The whole series of universes-past, present, and future-express His glory and power; but He transcends His own glory. All beings of the universe form, as it were, only a portion of His being; the greater part is invisible and unchangeable. He who is beyond all predicates appears as the relative universe; He appears as all sentient and insentient beings.]

vā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā samānaṃ vṛkṣaṃ pari ṣasvajāte |
Tayoranyaḥ pippalaṃ svādvattyanaśnannanyo abhi cākaśīti || (Rigveda : 1-164-20) ||
Yatrā suparṇā amṛtasya bhāghamanimeṣaṃ vidathābhisvaranti |
Ino viśvasya bhuvanasya ghopāḥ sa mā dhīraḥ pākamatrā viveśa || (Rigveda: 1-164-21)
Yasmin vṛkṣe madhvadaḥ suparṇā niviśante suvate cādhi viśve |
Tasyedāhuḥ pippalaṃ svādvaghre tan non naśad yaḥpitaraṃ na veda ||( Rigveda: 1-164-22)
Two eagles, close friends, embrace the same tree, one of them eats the sweet berry, the other   keeps looking without eating.
Where the eagles without resting, clamor for a share, for allotments in immortality, here the mighty protector of the whole world, this wise one entered naïve me.
On which tree all the sweet-eating eagles are nesting and breeding, in its top, they say, is the sweet fruit. He will not reach there who does not know the father.
[The tree is the tree of knowledge, which in turn is compared to a sweet-berry. The two eagles represent two different approaches to acquire knowledge. Only who follows the correct approach and recognizes the father, the mighty protector of the world, will reach the fruit of knowledge, a share in immortality.]

Another  Translation for the same text in Upanishad:

Dwa Suparna Sayuja Sakhaaya Samanam Vriksham Parishaswajate
Tayor anyah pippalam swadu atti, anashnan anyo abhijakashiti. - Mundaka Upanishad 3.1:1
Samane vrikshe purusho nimagno 'nishaya shocati muhyamanah Jushtam yada pashyati anyam isham asya mahimanam iti vita-shokah - Mundaka Upanishad 3.1:2
Yada pashyah pashyate rukma-varnam kartaram isham purusham brahma-yonim Tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti - Mundaka Upanishad 3.1:3
Meaning in English:
Two birds living together, each the friend of the other, perch upon the same tree. Of these two, one eats the fruits of the tree, but the other simply looks on without eating.
Although the two birds are on the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness.
If in some way or other he turns his face to his friend who is the Lord, at once the suffering bird becomes free of all anxieties
One who sees the golden colored bird, the Lord, the actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, is liberated.
Such a person becomes wise. He becomes free of both pious and sinful karmic reactions. He becomes pure. He attains a spiritual form like that of the Lord Himself,
--Sadguru Jaggi Vasudev  

Aaditya eva devalokah / Chandramaa manushyalokah /Om iti aadityo vaagiti chandramaah //   (Jaiminiya Brahamana)

The world of God is the Sun; the world of human beings is the Moon; Om is the Sun; Vaa(ch) –speech  is the Moon. (That which to prayer is offered by speech is Sun; that which prays is Moon)

Wisdom of Vedas says "Let us stay united, speak united and act united promoting peace and harmony. The Vedas teach equality among the people in society. No one is superior or no one is inferior. We find Samaanatha in the Vedas:

Te ajyesthaa akanisthaasa udbhido amadhyamaaso mahasaa vivavridhuh | sujaataaso janushaa prishnimataro divo marya aa no achaa jigatana || (Rig: 5-59-6)
Among these men there are no superiors or no inferiors, no middle ones either. They become great from small beginnings. They make progress in different ways by dint of their merits. By birth they are all highborn because they are all children of Mother-Earth. O you men of the Lord Refulgent! Be available to us in a loveable manner or grow into praise-worthy souls in fair ways.

Ajyesthaaso akanislliaasa ete sam bhraataro vaavridhuh saubhagaaya|yuva pita swapaa rudra eshaam sudhughaa prishnih sudinaa marudbhayah || (Rig: 5-60-5)

hese men are without superiors and without inferiors. They are mutually brothers. They march onwards for prosperity. The eternally youthful, the soul protecting, grief alleviating God is their father. The richly feeding Mother-Earth produces happy days to these mortals.
Sam samidyuvase vrishannagne visvaanyaarya aa | Ilaspade samidhyase sa no vasoonyaa bhara   – Rig: 10-191-1

Oh Almighty and Adorable God! In the whole universe Thou dost the work of harmonizing and uniting, and most fully reveal thyself in the world. We therefore, beseech Thee to bestow upon us in every way all the means that will enable us to live in peace and harmony.
he following Atharveda mantras also give a candid proof about Equality: –

Sahridayam saamanasyam avidvisham krinomi vah I Anyo anyam abhi haryata vatsam jaatamivaaghnyaa || (Atharva: 3-30-1)

Oh Men!  I ordain for your concord of heart, unanimity of mind and freedom from hatred in dealings with each other. Love one another in every way even as the inviolable her new-born calf.

Samaanee prapaa sahavoanna bhagaha samaane yoktre saha vo yunajmi | samyanchognim saparyataaraa naabhimivaabhitah | (Atharva: 3-30-6)

O you men! May your water reservoirs be common; may the shares of food be enjoyed jointly. I unite you all under the yoke of common code of conduct with one another. Worship the Lord of Lustre congregationally, just as the spokes touch the hub from all sides.
Sadhreecheenaanvah sammanasaskrinomyekasnushteentsamvananena sarvaan I Devaa ivaamritam rakshamaanaah saayam praatah soumanaso vo astu || (Atharva: 3-30-7)
I enjoin on all of you to be mutually helping one another, to be united in your mind and to have one goal in life. You should, like the wise of all ages, ever cherish the idea of the liberation of your souls from the trammels of the world and to this end may peace of mind increase among you evening and morning.
Samaano mantrah samithih samaanee samanam vratam sahachithameshaam|
samaanena vo havishaa juhomi samaanam cheto abhisamvishadhvam
|| (Atharva: 6-64-2)

May your thoughts and hymns be common; may your assembly be common; may your austere vow, spiritual resolve be common; may all your minds be alike and  be united. I provide you with common food, drink and needs of life. All of you strive for a common objective.

Sam vah prichyantaam tanvah sam manaamsi samuvrataa I
Sam voyam brahmanaspatirbhagah sam vo ajeegamat ||
(Atharva 6-74-1)

Let your bodies (or learning and other attainments) and minds work together in harmony for the achievement of the common ideal. It is for this that the Majestic God, the Protector of the universe, has brought you together in life.

Sam jnapanam vo manasotho samjnapanam hridah |
Atho bhagasya yachchraantam tena samjnpayaami vah ||
( Atharva 6-74-2)

Let your heads (minds) work in calm and precision and let your hearts join them in contented co-operation. In addition to this for the trouble you have taken to realize the majesty of God, I invigorate you (that you proceed on and reach your goal.)

 Sangacchadhvam sam vadadhvam; Samaano mantrah samitih; Samaano vaa aakootih:

[These mantras say that a person not only should take care of himself but also look after the welfare of the society he lives in].

Sangacchadhvam sam vadadhvam sam vo manaamsi jaanataam/ devaa bhaagam yathaa purve sanjanaana upaasate // (X-191-20)

Come together! Speak together! Let our minds be all of one accord like the divines that sat togethe in the past  in harmony to worship.

[All people should live with one mind without enmity and this can be achieved only by the divine grace says the mantra]
Samaano mantra: samiti: samaani samaanam mana: saha chittamesam /
samaanam mantramabhi mantraye va: samaanena vo havisha juhomi  //(X-191-3)

Let our speech be one; united be our voices! May our minds be in union with the thoughts of the wise people!  Sharing a common purpose; we worship as one.

[Vedanta Religion is universal. It did not promote walled religions.  Bhagavad Gita later said these religion need bridges to connect to the Supreme. All rivers seek refuge in the vast Ocean. All religions seek universal Lord Brahman only who is ever expanding and indescribable to accommodate all]

Samaani vaa aakootih samaana hridayaani vah / Samaanam astu vo mano yathaa vah susahaasati // (X-191-4)

United be your purpose, harmonious be your feelings,  collected   be your mind, in the same way as all the various aspects of the universe exist in togetherness, wholeness.

[We should act in a manner with no ill-will towards others, causing no harm and causing no  pain. Let us learn from the nature as to how to live in peace and exist together in harmony that pleases the Lord says the mantra]

 ….. dvandvam vai veeryyam  yadaa vai dvau samarabhete atha tadveeryyambhavati dvandvam vai mithunam prajananam-mithuna mevaitatprajananam kriyate //

A pair is strength. When two copulate, then there is strength.  A pair is a copulation.  A copulation, a procreation is thus produced. (Satapata Brahmana 1:1:1)

Trayambakam yajaamahe sugandhim puhstivardhanam  /  Urvaarukamiva bandhanaan mrityor-muksheeya maamritaat  // ( Rigveda 7:59:12)

We sing Thy (Supreme Principle) praise, thou art being the cause and sustainer of Creation, Preservation and Destruction (Tryambaka=Brahma, Vishnu and Siva) and as Primordial Energies in the form of Knowledge, Wealth and Happiness (Sarasvati, Lakshmi and Gowri).  We are praying for the life rejuvenating nectar to get out of death inflicting diseases as well as the cycle of rebirth and death as the melon gets released from the creeper when mature.  [This interpretation of the Mantra is universal in appeal to Supreme Principle as intended in Vedas]

Apaama somam-amritaa abhootamaaganma jyotiravidaama devaan /  kim noonamasmaan-krinvadaraatih kimu dhootiramrita  martyasya //  (Rigveda 8-48-3)

Oh Immortal One! We have drunk Soma, have become immortal, have gone to light, and we have seen the Gods. What indeed can enmity do to us and what the knavery of mortal?

Yadyaava indram te satham satham bhoomeeruta syuh /  na tvaa varjin sahasram sooryaa anu na jaatamashta rodasee // (Rigveda VIII-81-51)

O Indra! Perhaps even one hundred heavens will not be equal to your brilliance! Likewise even hundreds of Earths will not match you! Oh! The one who carries a diamond mace! Even thousand stars can illumine you! No born things can ever match you! Heaven and Earth cannot match you!

Soma ekebhyaḥ pavate ghṛtameka upāsate | yebhyo madhupradhāvati tāṃścidevāpi ghachatāt || 10—154-1 ||

For the ancestors Soma is purified; some accept the molten butter; to the company of those for whom the honey flows; let him go!
[Soma is celebrated as the most sacred plant in Vedas, Next comes Darbha grass used in rituals]

Dvayam vaa -idam na triteeyam-asti / satyam chaivaanritam cha satyameva devaa anritam manushyaa idamaham-anritaat-satyam-upaimeeti tan-manushyebhyo devaanupaiti //
his world is of two kinds, there is no third—Truth (SAT) and Untruth (ASAT). The Gods are Truth, human beings, Untruth. Here I go from Untruth to Truth (uttering this while becoming consecrated for the sacrifice) one goes over from (the world) of human beings to (the world of) the Gods (and thus fit to sacrifice to them)—(Satapata Brahmana 1:1:1:4)

Ye yudhyante pradhaneṣ śūrās ye tanūtyajaḥ | yevāsahasradakṣiāstāṃści devāpi ghachatāt (Rigveda 10-154-2) ||

To the company of those who fight contested battles, heroes who cast away their lives,   to those who made a thousand gifts, let him go!
Ye cit pūrva ṛtasāpa ṛtāvāna ṛtāvṛdhaḥ | pitṝn tapasvato yama tāṃścidevāpi ghachatāt ||
 (Rigveda 10-154-3)

To those ancient followers of the Law, steadfast in the Law, who furthered the Law, to the Fathers, Yama, great in their spiritual fire, let him go!
Sahasraṇīthāḥ kavayo ye ghopāyanti sūryam | ṛṣīntapasvato yama tapojānapi ghachatāt || (10-154-4)

To the sage-poets, the leaders of thousands, those who protect the sun, to the Rishis of great spiritual discipline, born of spiritual discipline, Yama! let him go!

Sraddhayāghniḥ samidhyate śraddhaya huyate havih | śraddhāṃ bhaghasya mūrdhani vachasā vedayaamasi ||10-154-5||
By Faith is Agni kindled, through Faith is oblation offered up. We celebrate with praises Faith upon the height of happiness.

Ajyeshtaaso akanishthaasa sama bharaAtaro vaavradhuh Saubhaagaaya / (Rigveda 5-60-5)

There is none high or low amongst you. You are all brethren and therefore, strive all together to attain prosperity. (Rig Veda 50, 60, 5).

Yac cid dhi śaśvatām asīndra sādhāraṇas tvam | taṃ tvā vayaṃ havāmahe ||
As, O God, Thou art forever the common Lord of all alike, as such we invoke thee now. (Rig Veda 4, 32, 13)

Sadhrīmā yanti pari bibhratīḥ payo viśvapsnyāya pra bharanta bhojanam | samāno adhvā pravatāmanuṣyade yastākṛṇoḥ prathamaṃ sāsyukthyaḥ ||

All who can walk are equally entitled to the use of paths and roads. (Rig Veda 2, 13, 2)

Priyaṃ śraddhe dadataḥ priyaṃ śraddhte didāsatah | priyambhojeṣu yajvasvidaṃ maa uditaṃ kṛdhi || (10-121-1)

Bless thou the man who gives, O Faith; Faith, bless the man who fain would give. Bless thou the liberal worshipers: bless thou the word that I have said.

Yathā deva asureṣhu śraddhāmughreṣu chakrire | evambhojeṣhu yajvasvasmākamuditaṃ kṛdhi || (10-121-2)

Even as the Deities maintained Faith in the mighty Asuras; So make this uttered wish of mine true for the liberal worshippers.

 śraddhāṃ devā yajamānā vāyughopā upāsate |śraddhāṃ hṛdayyayākūtyā śraddhayā vindate vasu ||(10-121-3)

Guarded by Vāyu, Gods and men who sacrifice draw near to Faith. Man winneth Faith by yearnings of the heart, and opulence by Faith.

śraddhāṃ prātai havāmahe śraddhāṃ madhyandinaṃ pari |śraddhāṃ sūryasya nimruchi śraddhe śraddhāpayeha naḥ ||(Rigveda 10-121-4)

Faith in the early morning, Faith at noonday will we invocate, Faith at the setting of the Sun. O Faith, endow us with belief.

prajāpate na tvadetānyanyo viśvā jātāni pari tābabhūva |  yatkāmāste juhumastan no astu vayaṃ syāma patayorayīṇām || 10-121-10 ||

Lord of creation! No one other than thee pervades all these that have come into being.  May that be ours for which our prayers rise, may we be masters of many treasures!

Ava drughdhāni pitryā sṛjā no.ava yā vayaṃ chakṛmā tanūbhiḥ | ava rājan paśutṛpaṃ na tāyuṃ sṛjā vatsaṃ na dāmno vasiṣhṭham ||

Loose us from the yoke of the sins of our fathers and also of those which we ourselves have committed. (Rig Veda 7.86.5) 

Yatra rājā vaivasvato yatrāvarodhanaṃ divaḥ | yatrāmūryahvatīrāpastatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 8 ||

Make me immortal in the realm where the son of Vivasvat [Yama] reigns, where lies heaven's secret shrine, where are those waters that are ever young. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu

Yatrānukāmaṃ caraṇaṃ trināke tridive divaḥ | lokā yatra jyotiṣmantastatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 9 ||

Make me immortal in that realm where movement is accordant to wish, in the third region, the third heaven of heavens, where the worlds are resplendent. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu

Yatra kāmā nikāmāśca yatra bradhnasya viṣṭapam   svadhā ca yatra tṛptiśca tatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo parisrava || 10 ||

Make me immortal in that realm where all wishes and longings go, where spreads the Radiant One's region, where holy bliss is, and happiness. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu!

Yatrānandāśca modāśca mudaḥ pramuda āsate | kāmasya yatrāptāḥ kāmāstatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 11 ||

Make me immortal in that realm where beatitude and joy and cheer and transports of delight abound, where the highest desires have been filled. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu! (Rigveda  9-113—8 to 11)

Akṣetravit kṣetravidaṃ hyaprāṭ sa praitikṣetravidānuśiṣṭaḥ| etad vai bhadramanuśāsanosyota-srutiṃ vindatyañjasīnām || 10-32-7  ||

One not knowing a land asks of one who knows it ; he goes forward instructed by the knowing one:Such, indeed, is the blessing of instruction, one finds a path that leads him straight onward

Priyaṃ śraddhe dadataḥ priyaṃ śraddhte didāsataḥ priyambhojeṣu yajvasvidaṃ maa uditaṃ kṛdhi ||(10-121-1)

Bless thou the man who gives, O Faith; Faith, bless the man who fain would give. Bless thou the liberal worshipers: bless thou the word that I have said.

Yathā deva asureṣhu śraddhāmughreṣu chakrire  | evambhojeṣhu yajvasvasmākamuditaṃ kṛdhi ||(10-121-2)

Even as the Deities maintained Faith in the mighty Asuras; So make this uttered wish of mine true for the liberal worshipers. 

Sraddhāṃ devā yajamānā vāyughopā upāsate | śraddhāṃ hṛdayyayākūtyā śraddhayā vindate vasu ||(10-121-3)

Guarded by Vāyu, Gods and men who sacrifice draw near to Faith. Man winneth Faith by yearnings of the heart, and opulence by Faith.

Sraddhāṃ prātai havāmahe śraddhāṃ madhyandinaṃ pari | śraddhāṃ sūryasya nimruchi śraddhe śraddhāpayeha naḥ ||(Rigveda 10-121-4)

Faith in the early morning, Faith at noonday will we invocate, Faith at the setting of the Sun. O Faith, endow us with belief.

Prajāpate na tvadetānyanyo viśvā jātāni pari tābabhūva | yatkāmāste juhumastan no astu vayaṃ syāma patayorayīṇām || 10-121-10 ||

Lord of creation! No one other than thee pervades all these that have come into being. May that be ours for which our prayers rise, may we be masters of many treasures!

Ava drughdhāni pitryā sṛjā no.ava yā vayaṃ chakṛmā tanūbhiḥ | ava rājan paśutṛpaṃ na tāyuṃ sṛjā vatsaṃ na dāmno vasiṣhṭha

Loosen us from the yoke of the sins of our fathers and also of those which we ourselves have committed. (Rig Veda 7.86.5) 

Yatra rājā vaivasvato yatrāvarodhanaṃ divaḥ / yatrāmūryahvatīrāpastatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 8 ||

Make me immortal in the realm where the son of Vivasvat [Yama] reigns, where lies heaven's secret shrine, where are those waters that are ever young. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu

Yatrānukāmaṃ caraṇaṃ trināke tridive divaḥ | lokā yatra jyotiṣmantastatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 9 ||

Make   me immortal in that realm where movement is accordant to wish, in the third region, the third heaven of heavens, where the worlds are resplendent. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu

Yatra kāmā nikāmāśca yatra bradhnasya viṣṭapam svadhā ca yatra tṛptiśca tatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo parisrava || 10 ||

Make me immortal in that realm where all wishes and longings go, where spreads the Radiant One's region, where holy bliss is, and happiness. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu!

Yatrānandāśca modāśca mudaḥ pramuda āsate |  kāmasya yatrāptāḥ kāmāstatra māmamṛtaṃ kṛdhīndrāyendo pari srava || 11 ||

Make me immortal in that realm where beatitude and joy and cheer and transports of delight abound, where the highest desires have been filled. For Indra, flow thou on, Indu! (Rigveda  9-113—  11)

Akṣetravit kṣetravidaṃ hyaprāṭ sa praitikṣetravidānuśiṣṭaḥ | etad vai bhadramanuśāsano syotasrutiṃ vindatyañjasīnām || 10-32-7 ||

One not knowing a land asks of one who knows it; he goes forward instructed by the knowing one. Such, indeed, is the blessing of instruction, one finds a path that leads him straight onward.

All this is He-what has been and what shall be. He is the Lord of immortality. Though He has become all this, in reality He is not all this. For truly, He is beyond the world. The whole series of universes-past, present, and future-express His glory and power; but He transcends His own glory. All beings of the universe form, as it were, only a portion of His being; the greater part is invisible and unchangeable. He who is beyond all predicates appears as the relative universe; He appears as all sentient and insentient beings.

Devaanaam purve yuge asatah sadajaayata…. devaanaam yuge prathame asatah sadajaayata 

In the earliest age of the Gods, Being was born from Non-being.  In the first age of the Gods, Being was born from Non-being. (Rigveda: 10-72)

Aa no badhraah kratavo yantu viswatah adabhdaaso apareetaasa uddhidah | Devaano yathaa sadamidvridhe asanna praayavo rakshitaaro dive dive || (Rigveda)

Just as all the divines  who contribute to the progress  of us  each day and  who take care of us every day without sparing no time protecting   and   nourishing us all the time, let such noble tidings come from all parts of the world with no  hindrance and always fruitful!.

Rigveda indicates that Truth is one - "Ekam sad vipra bahudha vadanti agnim yamam matariswanam ahuh"   (I-164-46).Truth is one, but the learned refer to it in different names like Agni, Yama, Maatariswan. But the concept that there is a single Parabrahman and that all Gods are Its forms, is more clearly visible towards the Vedanta (Upanishads).

Ekam santam  bahudhaa kalpayanti- (Rigveda I-114-5)--What is one is also many.

“Chatvari sringa trayo asya pada dve seershe sapta hastaso asya | tridhaa baddho vrishabho roraveeti martyaa maho devo aavivesa || Rigveda IV.58.3.” and MNU.

The syllable Om or Brahman   conceived as a mystic bull  has four  horns, three feet, two heads and seven hands.  This bull connected in a threefold manner, eloquently declares the Supreme. The Self-luminous Deity has entered the mortal everywhere.  

This mantra contains the hidden meaning Brahman is  Kaalpurusha or Time, symbolizing  the Yuga number or cosmic age of 4320,000,000 million years (Kalpa) as the mantra suggests  the numbers in order 4, 3, 2 and seven zero.  Brahman is described as a Mystic bull with 4 horns, 3 feet and two heads and 7 tongues in Vedas.  Brahman is also described as Kaala or time. This could mean 4+3+7=14 contained by two heads one dark and one bright,   one head focusing on dark half of the month and the other bright half of the month and the whole representing 4320,000, 000 years where 4, 3 and 2 appear as numerals and 7 as zeros constituting one Kalpa like Svetavaraha Kalpa,   cosmic age of Creation and dissolution. It defines what a Kalpa is in mathematics. Vedic mathematics is a wide subject.

The idea of mortal also comes from 4+3+2+7=16. Human being elsewhere referred to as Shodasee meaning 16. Human being constitutes 10 sense organs, Manas or mind and five elements or Panchbhootas.    A human being is also bound by three  states-Awakening, Dream and Deep-sleep described as Vaiswanara, Tejasa  and Hiranyagarbha and also three Gunas of Prakriti. Here the Pranava declares the Supreme Reality eloquently. The declaration here implies the presence of Paramaatman in all creatures and his sustaining   of them. The first line of the mantra talks of numbers 4+3+2+7=16. This represents the human being who  constitutes 10 sense organs, Manas (mind)   and five elements (panch bhootas ) mentioned elsewhere as Shodasee or 16. These are bound by three that means three Gunas Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

Again 16X3=48. Chamakam asks us to meditate on 48 the ending even number. That implies Human being as Self must  meditate on Parabrahman.  We have 24 names of the Lord represented by 24 letters of Gayatri  adding up to 48; Sanskrit letters are 48;  first letter “A” represents Siva and last letter  “H” represent Sakti. It also represents Saguna Brahman and Prakriti.   

According to Bhattabhaskara the four horns are the four adjutants of the sacrifice, Adhvaryu, Hotri, Brahmana and Udgaatri(4); the three (3) feet are Gaarhapatya, Aahavaneeya,  Anavaahaaryapachana; the heads  are the institutor of the sacrifice and his wife or the Praayaneeya and  Udayaneeya (2) ; the seven (7) meters  headed by Gayatri are  the seven hands. The body of the sacrifice is bound in a three-fold   manner by three savannas or ceremonies connected with the extraction of Soma. The Yajna grants desired objects. So it is Vrishabha. The noise produced by bull compares to the chant of the three Vedas at the sacrifice.  The Lord himself entered human beings (shodasee) through the sacrifice in which He is worshiped.  

You see how deep is the meaning contained in the riddle language of Vedas and a research mind is needed to solve the riddle.

 Prithivee dahramana dhritam--  Atharva veda 12/1/17
The world is sustained by Dharma.

Aatmavat Sarvabhooteshu-The same Self abides in all. One should feel the happiness and distress of others as his own (Manusmriti)

Aum Agnimeele purohitam yajnasya devaritvi(ga)m hotaaram ratnadhaatamam (First mantra of Rigveda  recorded by HMV inagural)
I salute to Agni, the Fire God, the  most bounteous, the giver of wealth on the planet”


Pavaka nah Sarsvati vajehir vajinivati yajman vashtudhyaanavasuh ( Rigveda 1.3.10)
May the Divine Mother of Speeh, the Goddess Sarasvati who enriches our lives with pure knowledge, bless us with the clarity of vision and be the source of inspiration and accomplishment in all our activities organized for the welfare of mankind.

Chodyat isunritanam chetanti sumatinam ( Rigveda 1.3.11)
O Divine Mother of Speech Sarasvati! Those who are aligned with the source (Truth) are constantly inspired and guided by you.   Please help us in the performance of benevolent activities that are in peace and harmony with others.

Maho arnah Sarasvati pra chatiyati ketuna dhiyo viswa vi rajati ( Rigveda 1.3.12)
The Divine Mother of Speech sets in motion all the faculties of mind and spirit, and enlightens the intellet of devotees who are inclined to experience inner unity and spiritual maturituy.
Final Prayer
Om sham no mitraah sham varunah sham no bhavatvaryama sham no indro Brihaspatih sham no vishnuh urukramah (1.90.9)
May the Sun god giver of life on plane be gracious to us, Varuna the most virtuous, be kind to us, Aryana the god  of justice be gracious to us, Devraj  Indra the giver of rain showers be gracious to us, Brihaspati, the great spiritual teacher be graciuous to us, Lord Vishnu the great pervasive intelligence be gracious to us!

Renounce and Rejoice
 Isaavaasyam idam sarvam yat kincha jagatyaam jagat | tena tyaktena bhunjeetha  maa gridhah kasya svid dhanam  || (Isa Up.-1)

“Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong.”
Find your enjoyment in renunciation; do not covet what belongs to others.
Yastu sarvaani bhootaani aatmanyeva-anupasyati | Sarvabhooteshu cha-atmaanam tathoe na vijugupsate ||Isa.up. 6 ||

Those who see all creatures in themselves and find themselves in all creatures (aatmavat sarvabhooteshu) identify themselves with the entire creation. Then there is no room left for any hatred.

Etadaatmyam idam sarvam tat sathyam-Chhandogya                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sadhukaaree  sadhurbhavati; Paapakaaree paapo bhavati; Punyah punyena karmanaa bhavati; paapah paapena || athah khalu kaamamayam eva ayam purusha iti ||(Chhandogya)

One becomes good by doing the good.  One becomes evil by doing evil. By Punya karmas (meritorious deeds) one becomes a man of Punya. He who des sinful deeds becomes a sinner. Some say that this Self or Jeeva is e replete with desires.

Aahaarasuddahau sattvasuddih sattvasuddhau dhruvaa smitih smritilabhye-sarva-grantheenaam vipramokshah || (Ch.Up. 7-26-2)
Upon Brahman becomes firm. When the memory of god becomes firm there will be destruction of all the knots of the heart such as desire, anger and others.

 tāni ha vā etāni trīṇyakṣarāṇi satīyamiti tadyatsattadamṛtaṃ atha yatti tanmartyaṃ atha yadyam tenobhe yacchati … (Ch. 8-3-5)
Meaning: ‘It (Satyam) is these three letters, sa, ti, yam; sa is immortal, ti is mortal and yam holds them both together’. We may compare this explanation of Satyam with that given in 5.5.1 of Bṛhadāraṇyaka; both convey the same idea. Moreover, this definition conforms well with the declaration in 2.3.1 of Bṛhadāraṇyaka that Brahma has two forms, viz. the mortal and immortal, etc. As against this notion of Brahma, it may be noted that Ātmā is absolutely immortal.

It is further taught in verse 8.4.1 that Ātmā keeps everything in this universe in proper position so that they maintain their individual existence and that it also serves as a binding force establishing an inter-connection among them all; it is not overcome by day and night, old age and death, sorrow and good/bad works. These are only a further enlightenment on what we have already understood about Ātmā.
Avidyāyāmantare vartamānāḥ svayaṃ dhīrāḥ paṇḍitaṃ manyamānāḥ
dandramyamāṇāḥ pariyanti mūḍhā andhenaiva nīyamānā yathāndhāḥ ( Ka Up.2.5)
Meaning: ‘The foolish ones, thinking themselves to be intelligent and learned, despite being totally immersed in ignorance, wander around, going from one thing to another, like the blind being led by the blind’.
This verse implies that if one opts for the path of preyas, he is actually foolish, though he may think himself to be wise and learned. Being already ignorant, he is led by ignorance too; the phrase ‘blind led by the blind’ emphasises this fact, blindness being a reference to ignorance. (This verse appears in Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad also – verse 1.2.8 – with a single-word replacement).
Uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata
kṣurasya dhārā niśitā duratyayā durgaṃ pathastat kavayo vadanti ( Ka.Up.3.14)
Meaning: Be awake and be active; approach the learned and get enlightened.
The wise say that the path is very difficult to tread, like the sharp edge of a razor.
‘Be awake and be active’ means that one should first discipline his inner faculties and then strive for getting the necessary instructions.
 Atmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ rathameva tu
buddhiṃ tu sārathiṃ viddhi manaḥ pragrahameva ca ( Ka.up.3.3)
Indriyāṇi hayānāhuḥ viṣayāṃsteṣu gocarān

 manoyuktaṃ bhoktetyāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ (Ka.up.3.4)
The idea sought to be presented here is the Ātmā-body relationship. It is same as we have already found in the first verse of Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad, “īśāvāsyamidaṃ sarvaṃ ….” It also furthers the concept that Ātmā is seated in the heart. It is the duty of Buddhi to guide the chariot by harnessing the horses of the sense organs, using the rein of Manas. The goal obviously is what the master directs. Since the master, the Ātmā, is the origin of everything, he attracts everything to himself; everything is attached to him just as the beads of a rosary (Gīta 7.7). So the final destination of the chariot is Ātmā himself (vide verse 3.11 mentioned below). It goes without saying, that if the rein or the horse is bad, or if the driver is negligent, the goal will not be attained (Verses 5 to 9).
The Ātmā-body relationship is further explored in verses 3.10 and 3.11. Verse 3.10 declares that sense-objects (such as sound, touch, etc.) are superior to (subtler than) senses; Manas is superior to the sense-objects; Buddhi is superior to Manas; that which is superior to Buddhi is ‘Mahān Ātmā’.
What is this Mahān Ātmā? It is the expanding state of Ātmā; mahat indicates that which expands. How is this expanding state like? As a prelude to manifestation of the physical world, Ātmā invokes Prakṛti which is its inalienable power to appear in different forms. With the Prakṛti invoked, Ātmā is known as Puruṣa. This Puruṣa- Prakṛti combine is called Brahma and it is the Brahma that expands and differentiates into various names and forms constituting the universe. Before this expansion starts, the state of Brahma is known as Avyakta (undifferentiated). When the differentiation is in process, it is called ‘Mahān Ātmā’.
From the above explanation, it is evident that Avyakta is superior to Mahān Ātmā (or Mahat) and Puruṣa is superior to Avyakta. Since Puruṣa is Ātmā himself, nothing is superior to Puruṣa. This is the position declared in verse 3.11. This comparison appears again in verses 6.7 and 6.8. Verse 3.11 also declares that this Puruṣa is the ultimate goal. What should one do to achieve that goal? Mṛtyu gives the answer in verse 3.14:
 Urdhvamūlovākśākha eṣośvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ
tadeva śukraṃ tadbrahma tadevāmṛtamucyate
tasmiṃllokāḥ śritāḥ sarve tadu nātyeti kaścana etadvai tat (Ka. Up. 6.1)
Meaning: aśvatthaḥ= holy fig tree. In this verse, Brahma is equated to an Aśvatthaḥ tree whose roots are above and branches are below; this tree is eternal. The rest is same as we have seen in verse 5.8 above. Gīta also says about this tree in verse 15.1 to 15.4 in greater detail. Look at this tree. The mention that its roots are above, gives an indication of the location of its source of strength and support; ‘above’ indicates transcendence. The all-transcendent entity is verily Ātmā; therefore, the tree has its source and support in Ātmā. Branches of a tree subsist due to the roots. Here the root is Ātmā and branches represent Prakṛti. The root and the branches together represent the Brahma as stated in verse 5.8. Gīta 15.2 explains further that the branches of this tree spread upwards also and the roots extend to bottom.
[In Thiruppullani near Rameswaram Jaganntha appeard as Aswattha Tree first and later at the rquest of the sages He appeared in his Archa form with all accessories of Sankha, Chakra and Gada. He was the family deity of Iksahwakus and Sri Rama advised Vibhishana to worship him there as mentioned in Ramayana by Valmiki—Aaraadhaya Jagannaatham]

Om Sahanaa vaavatu | Sahanau bhnaktu | Sahaveeryam karavaavahai|Tejasvi naavadheetam-astu  | Maa vidvishaamahai |Om Santih! Santih ! Santih ||

Though this mantra is chanted both by the teacher and taught before the commencement of the study of this Upanishad this mantra conveys a strong message to all of us:
 May the Supreme Lord of Love protect us! May that Lord nourish us! May that Lord build strength! May we realize that Lord of Love in us! May we be inspired to live in love with all! May we be motivated to live in peace with all!

Sreyascha preyascha manushyametah tau sampareetya vivinakti dheerah | Sreyau hi dheero abhipreyaso vrineete preyo mando yogakshemaad vrineeta || Ka. Up. 2-2 ||

Do you need perennial joy or passing happiness? Here is a choice that one has to make always.   While a person with knowledgeable recognizes this, the ignorant does not. Person of knowledge welcomes what leads to perennial joy though to start with it is painful along the long and winding path.  The ignorant is goaded by the human instincts of sensual pleasure   that is only momentary pleasure. An intelligent person chooses the perennial joy to instant happiness for the purpose of Yogakshema. Yoga is development of body and Kshema is its protection.
Sravanaayaapi bahubhiryo na labhyah srunvato api bahavo yam na vidyuh |aascharyo vaktaa kusalo asya labhdaa aascharyo jnaataa kusalaanusishtah || (Ka.Up. 2-7)
Only a few hear about the Self. Fewer still are those that dedicate their lives for Self-realization.
Those who speak about the Self deserve our kudos.  People who make it their supreme goal of life are indeed very rare. Few are fortunate to attain Self–realization under the guidance of enlightened Gurus. All those that hear (Upanyasas) cannot easily gain the knowledge of Paramaatman. A clever exponent and an adept attainder of him are very rare.
Naayamaatma pravachanena labhyo na medhaya na bahunaa srutena  (Ka. Up. 2-23)
The Self-realization can neither be attained by the study of scriptures, nor thinking nor meditation nor hearing to discourses about it.
Yastvavijnaanavaan bhavati ayukteana manasaa sada | Tasyendriyaanyavasyaani  dushtaasva iva saaratheh |Yastu vijnaannavaan bhavati yuktena manasaa sada  | Sodhwanah paaram-aapnoti tadvishnoh paramam padam|| Ka.Up. 3—5, 6, 8)
When a person lacks discrimination with his mind uncontrolled the sense organs become uncontrollable just like wild horses for the charioteer.  Those who have discrimination, with a still mind and pure heart attain Self-realization. They reach the end of the road which is verily that abode of Vishnu.
Yacchedvangmanasee praajnyah tadyacchej-jnaana aatmani |Jnaanamaatmani mahati niyachchet tadyachchechaanta  aatmani  |  Uttishthata  Jaagrata praapya varaannibodhata || (Ka.Upa. –3—14. 15)
 A wise man must integrate his speech with his mind. That mind must integrate with his intellect which is in his Self.  He must integrate that intellect with the great Self and that Self must be integrated with the Supreme Self.  Arise! Awake! Seek the guidance of an illumined Guru and realize the Self.

Yasyamatam tasya matam matam yasya na veda sah
avijnatam vijananatam vijnatam avijanatam || Kena Up. 2-3||
The person who believes that he does not know him, has understood him. The person who thinks that he has understood him does not know him. He is unknown for those who know him and known for those who do not know him. Because only this can be understood with respect to him.
Iha ced avedid atha satyam asti na ced ihavedin mahati vinastih
bhutesu bhutesu vicitya dhirah pretyasmal lokad amrta bhavanti ||Ke up. 2-5||
If you understand him in this world in this birth then it is fine, if you do not understand him, then it is destruction everywhere, the scholars and great human beings have found him in every particle, living – non-living and reached to the conclusion that He is the main basis for everything. Such people obtain nectar after death, they become immortal.
In the first part it has been said the life cycle does not proceed on its own there is a strong force driving it. The eyes cannot see that strength, the eyes see with it. It has no speech, the speech can only describe it. In this part it has been said that what is that part, how can we know it? The sages say that, that strength can be experienced in every particle on the earth, everybody can feel it, the huge world is enough to experience its omnipresence, but one should understand that thinking that we have understood Him is illusion. What we see in this world and experience His presence is a common thing, this is understanding, we need knowledge to understand his real form, knowledge that is getting relieved from sensory organs and moving towards the inner soul, this condition gives this experience.
--Kena Upanishad by Sreedharan Kartikeyan
śrotrasya śrotraṃ manaso mano yat vācoha vācaṃ sa u prāṇasya prāṇaḥ |
cakṣuratimucya dhīrāḥ pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti ( Ke.Up.--1.2)
 It is the Self   that  is the ear of the ear, mind of the mind, speech of the speech, Prāṇa of the Prāṇa and eye of the eyes; having transcended the senses, the wise get departed from this world and become immortal’.
The ‘ear of the ear, mind of the mind,’ etc. indicates the energy that enables the ear to hear, enables the mind to think, etc. We have seen in ‘ Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad’ (verse 3.7.23) that ‘Ātmā is not seen, heard, thought or known; but he is the seer, hearer, thinker and knower; there is no other seer, hearer, thinker or knower. He is the immortal inner controller’. The same idea is expressed here. Similarly in  Kaṭha Upanishad’ (verse 3.15), we have seen that by realizing Ātmā which is beyond ear, speech, etc.  one becomes immortal. In order to be immortal, one should cease to be carried away by sensory experiences. The expression ‘get departed from the world’ precisely means this. It does not mean ‘after he leaves the body’; for, after leaving the body, everyone is Ātmā only and therefore immortal. 
Atho kalu aahuh kaamamaya eva ayam purusha iti| yathaa kaamo bhavati tatkraturbhavati yatkraturbhavati tatkarma kurute yatkarma kurute  tadabhi sampadyate //  (Br. Up. IV-4-5)
Some say that this Purusha or Jiva is replete with desires. You are what your deep, deriving desire is: as your desire is, so is your will; as your will is, so is your deed; as your deed is, so is your destiny!
…daivee vaaganuvadati stanayitnur da da da iti daamyata datta dayadhvamiti | Tadettryam siksheddamam daanam dayaamiti || (Br. Up. 5-2-3)
The heavenly voice of the cloud repeats this very thing as DA DA DA—Be self-controlled! Give! Have compassion! Therefore we should learn these three—self-control, giving charity and be compassionate. 
 Kāmamaya evāyaṃ puruṣha iti |sa yathākāmo bhavati tatkratur bhavati | yatkratur bhavati tat karma kurute | yat karma kurute tad abhisaṃpadyate ||
You are what your deep, driving desire is! As your desire is, so is your will! As your will is, so is your deed! As your deed is, so is your destiny (Br. UP. 4.4.5)

 Abaleeyaan baleeyaamsam asamsate dharmena… Yo vai sa dharmah satyam vai tat tasmaat satyam vadantamaahuh dharmam vadateeti dharmam vaa vadantam satyam vadateet-yetadvai tadubhayam bhavati // (Br.Up. 1-4-14)
One who is weak hops to defeat a strong through righteousness. That which is Dharma is verily   Truth (satya). Therefore, they say about a person speaking Truth, “He speaks what is   Dharma” or about a person speaking Dharma, “He speaks what is Truth” for this alone is both.

Yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaraḥ, yaṃ pṛthivī na veda, yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ, yaḥ  prithiveem antaroe yamayatyesha ta aatmaantaryaamyamrutah ||
It is declared that Ātmā pervades the entire universe and is the inner force sustaining and controlling it; universe is its body or physical expression and external appearance; Ātmā is not perceived by the beings as it is beyond the reach of their knowing faculties; it is immortal while the body is mortal. (Br.Up.3-7-7)
Sa vā eṣa mahānaja ātmā yoyaṃ vijñānamaya prāṇeṣu ya eṣontarhṛdaya ākāśaḥ tasmiñchete, sarvasya vaśī sarvasyeśānaḥ sarvasyādhipatiḥ sa na sādhunā karmaṇā bhūyānno evāsādhunā kanīyān eṣa sarveśvara eṣa bhūtādhipatireṣa bhūtapāla eṣa seturvidharaṇa eṣām lokanāmasaṃbhedāya ….. sa eṣa neti netyātmā, agṛhyo na hi gṛhyate, aśīryo na hi śīryate, asaṅgo na hi sajyate, asito na vyathate, na riṣyati; etamu haivaite na tarata iti, ataḥ pāpamakaravamiti, ataḥ kalyāṇamakaravamiti, ubhe u haivaiṣa ete tarati, nainaṃ kṛtākṛte tapataḥ)
Meaning: ‘The mighty, unoriginated Ātmā is the impelling force of organs; he pervades the subtle interiors of beings; he is the controller, ruler and lord of all; he is unaffected by good as well as bad deeds; he is the protector of all beings; he acts as a bridge connecting all the worlds (worldly/heavenly bodies) and also as a restraining force keeping all of them in proper places; ………. He is described as ‘not this, not this’ (i.e. He is transcendent); he is imperceptible as he is never perceived, indestructible as he never decays, unattached as he never aspires and he is unfettered too; he never feels pain and never suffers injury; he is never overtaken by the thoughts of having done an evil or good deed and he is not troubled by what has been done or not done’. (Br.Up. 4-4-24)
Asato maa sadgamaya / Tamaso maa jyotirgamaya / Mrityor maa amritam gamaya /  Om santih santih santih // (Br.Up.1-3-28)
Lead me from Untruth to Truth; from Darkness to Light; from Death to Immortality! May there be peace, peace, peace!
The simple meaning is thus: “Lead me from ‘Asat’ to ‘Sat’, from darkness to light and from mortality to immortality”. Asat and Sat have specific philosophical meaning, though they are often translated as ‘unreal’ and ‘real’ respectively, which are rather misleading. ‘Asat’ is that which has no state of existence and ‘Sat’ is that which has no state of non-existence (Gīta 2.16). It is to be understood that Asat does not exist by itself; it does not have an independent existence. In contrast, Sat exists by itself. That is the specific difference between the two. The phenomenal existence is neither Sat nor Asat, since it has a beginning and an end. It is actually Asat sustained by Sat; Asat represents the physical part and Sat the eternal sustaining energy. So, the first part of the hymn means this, ‘may I be oriented towards the eternal principle of existence, instead of the transient worldly pleasures’. In the second part, darkness indicates ignorance and light represents enlightenment. It may be noted that ignorance relates to Asat and enlightenment relates to Sat; therefore this part is rather a repetition of the first part in a different form. Similarly, the word ‘mortality’ in the last part refers to Asat only and immortality to Sat, going by the imports of Asat and Sat given above.
Tatkarma kritvaa vinivartya bhooyah tattvasya tattvena sametya yogam | ekena dvaabhyam thribhirashtabhirvaa kaalena chaivaagunaischa sookshmaih || aarabhya karmani gunaanvitaani bhaavaamscha sarvaan viniyojayedyah |teshamabhave kritakarmanasah karmakshaye yaati sa tattvato anyah || (Svet. Up. 6—3, 4)
Those who act without personal gains and lead a well-disciplined life   discover in course of time the Divine principle that all Atmans (Self) are the same and work in the devout service of the Lord.   With devotion to the Lord and to the teacher all results of such karmas will work out the   destruction of karmas and they work only in the service of the Lord.  They are then free from the law of Karma and reach the Supreme Abode.
Na tatra sooryo bhaati na chndra taarakam | nemaavidyuto bhati Kutoyamagnih | tvameva bhaantamanubhaati sravam tasya bhaasa sarvamidam vibhaati || (Sve.Up. 6-14)
Neither the sun nor the moon nor the star nor the flash of lightning nor the fire lit on earth shine on their own. The Supreme Spirit is the light that is reflected by all these.  Everything shines from the reflected light of the Supreme Spirit. He is the Light of all lights.
Tapah sraddhe hyupavasantyaranye saanthaa vidwaamso bhaikshacharyaam charantah | sooryadvaarena te virajaah praynti yatraamrutah  sa purusho hyavyayaatmaa ||(Mu. Up. 2-11)
Those Sanyasis (recluses) who are pure in heart, who practice meditation in calm atmosphere and conquer their senses and passions attain the Immortal Self or Supreme Spirit that is the source of all light  described above and source of all life.  
Kaamaanyah kaamayate manyamaanaah sa kaamabhirjaayate tatra tatra | paryaapa-tkaamasya  kritaartmanastu ihaiva sarve pravileeyanti kaamaah || (Mu.Up. 3-2.2.)
He who covets desirable things considering them as enjoyable ones, will be born in the category of a God or man along with those desires. But for one who has known the truth of the Atman and who desires for Brahman the ever full and perfect, all desires vanish even here.
Aum ity-etad-aksharam ida(ga)m sarvam | tasyopa-vyakhyaanam bhootam bhavad-bhavishyad-iti sarvam-onkaara eva | yaccha-anyat-trikaala-ateetam tadapy-onkaara eva ||
 AUM, the word, is all this, the whole universe. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past, present and future is, indeed, AUM. And whatever else there is, beyond the threefold division of time—that also is truly AUM. (1.1)
Om antascharati bhooteshu  guhaayaam visvamoortishu / tvam yajnastvam vashtkaarastvam indrstvam Rudrastvam  Vishnustvam Brahma tvam prajaapatih / tvam tadaapa aapo jyotee raso amritam brahma bhooh bhuvah suvah Om   // MN Up. 121 //
That Supreme Being moves inside the cavity of heart of all created beings possessing manifold forms. Thou art the sacrifice; Thou art the expression Vashat; Thou art Indra; Thou art Rudra; Thou art Vishnu; Thou art Brahma; Thou art Prajapati; Thou art That; Thou art the water in the rivers and the ocean; Thou art the Sun; Thou art the Flavor; thou art  ambrosia; Thou art the body the Vedas; thou art the Three-fold World  and Thou art Om.
[This mantra is for meditation for all irrespective of the sectarian leanings. All entities  other than the Supreme have that Supreme as their inner-self and so all terms signify Paramatman alone in the ultimate analysis.}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Eko devah sarvabhooteshu goodah sarva-vyaapee sarvabhoota-antraatma | Karma-adhyakshah sarvabhootaadhivaasah saakshee chetaa kevalo nirgunanch || (Sv. Up. 6-11)

Ekee vasee nishkriyaanaam bahoonaam ekam beejam bahudhaa yah karoti | Tamaatmastham ye anupasyanti dheeraah  tesham sukham saasvatam netareshaam || (Sv. Up. 6-12)

The Supreme Spirit is described here as having all the sentient principles under its rule. The individual Jeevaatmans (Selfs) are incapable of functioning independently. Only when the Supreme wills, do they become capable of functioning.  The Supreme Spirit is hidden in the hearts of all as innermost-controller, eternal witness and pure Consciousness.  The Supreme unaffected by Gunas, watches our work from within. The Supreme is the operator, we are but innumerable instruments. May we realize the Supreme in our consciousness and find the Bliss  that  only  can give us, that being  indescribable Plentitude (Bhuma)! –Sathyam, Jnaanam, Anantam, Brahama
Sathyameva Jayate naanrutam  sathyena panthaa vitato devayaanah | Yenaakramanti rishayo hyaaptakaamaah yatra tatsatyasya paramam nidhaanam || (Mu. Up. 3-1-6)
Truth alone wins and not falsehood. The path spread out in the form of Archiradi called Devayana is attained by Truth, by means of which the seers of the Truth, divested of desires ascend to a place where the Supreme Principle attainable through truth exists. Truth is victorious, Truth is the way; Truth is the goal of life reached by the sages who are free from self-will.
Devayaanah means Divine existence. Divine existence here means the freedom from all bondages of worldly life. The path to this goal is spread out by Satyam. This implies that the efforts to attain divine existence are done through the physical faculties of beings, as mentioned above. The ultimate abode of Satyam is undoubtedly Ātmā, since Satyam originates when SAT (Ātmā) supports ASAT. So, what the verse means is that those who have given up all Kāmas make use of their body for doing sādhana to get established in the ultimate principle of Ātmā.
Satyam is evidently that which has SAT; therefore it will always survive. That is why “Satyameva jayate – Truth alone will triumph”. The phenomenal world is also Satyam. It never gets destroyed; it gets only transformed. It only merges into and emerges from Ātmā periodically (see the verses 1.1.7 and 2.1.1, together with the references thereunder, above; see also Gīta 2.12).
 Satyam is evidently that which has SAT; therefore it will always survive. That is why “Satyameva jayate – Truth alone will triumph”. The phenomenal world is also Satyam. It never gets destroyed; it gets only transformed. It only merges into and emerges from Ātmā periodically.
Bhadram karnebhih srunuyaamidevaa bhadram pasyemaakshabhiryajatraah | sthirairangais-tushtuvaamsas-tanoobhih vyasema devaahitam yadaayuh || (Mundaka Shanti Mantra)
May we hear what is good for all!  May we behold the auspicious with our eyes!  Praising the Gods with study limbs and bodies, may we live the full-span of our lives as obtained by the Gods and serve the Lord of Love all our life! May we be used to spread that peace on earth!
Yathaa nadyaah syandamaanaah samudre astam gachchanti naamaroopam vihaaya |Tathaa vidvannamaroopaadi muktah paraatparam purusham upaiti divyam || Mu.Up. 3-2-8 ||
As rivers, flowing down, become indistinguishable (diappear) on reaching the sea, by giving up their names and forms, so also,   a knower of Brahman being freed from name and form attains the celestial Purusha, that is higher than the high. There is no identity between the liberated Jivaatman and Paramaatman. The illumined sage is lost in the Self.  The illumined sage is integrated in the Self.
Na karmanaa na prajayaa dhyanena tyaagenaike amritatvamaanasuh | Parena naakam nihitam guhaayaam vibhraajate yad yatayo visanti || Ma.Na.Up.||
Liberation is not attained by progeny nor by wealth. But it is gained by some only through renunciation or self-surrender.
Na sandrise tishthati roopamasya na chakshushaa pasyati kascha nainam | hridaa maneeshaa manasaa abhiklipto ya enam vidur-amritaaste bhavanti || (M. N.  UP. 11)
His form does not stand for being perceived. No one can see Him with his eyes.He is graspable by the mind full of devotionand stead fastness and those who know him thus become immortals.

Vidhartaaram havaamahe vasaoh kuvidvanaati nah | savitaaram nrichkshasam ( MNU  )
We invoke the creator of the universe who sustains the creation in many ways and who wirnesasaesa the thoughts and deeds of people. May He grant us plenty of excellent wealth!

Viswaani deva savitar duritaani paraasuva |yadbhadram tanma aasuva | (MNU)
O God! O Creator! Turn away fro me all the sins; bring to me which is beneficial!

Charanam pavitram vitatam puraanam yena pootas-tarati dushkritaani | tena pavitrena suddhena pootaa ati paapmaanm araati tarema || (Taittareeya Brahmana and MNU)
 He who is rendered holy by the ancient widespread   virtuous conduct (or feet) crosses over evil deeds and their effects.  Having been rendered holy by that naturally pure and purifying conduct (or feet of the Lord) may we overcome our enemies!
[This mantra is used for the purpose of doing Japa (holy chanting) to be done while standing in knee-deep water about to plunge for taking a bath. This is also chanted while washing the holy Vedic scholar’s or Sanyasi’s feet ceremoniously. Charanam also stands for Charana Deva, Narayana, the ancient one,   whose wide gait encompassed, sky and heaven glorified as Trivikrama and Vishnu in Vedas. It is common practice to  worship Vishnu’s feet in all Vishnu Temples in a separate sanctum]
Charanbai madhu vindati charantsvadu mudambaram |Suryasya pasya sreemanam yo na tandrayate charan | Charaiveti, charaiveti.”
Aitareya Brahmana, 7.15
The literal translation of the verse is: “The honey bee, by its motion, collects honey, and birds enjoy tasty fruits by constant movement. The sun is revered, by virtue of its constant shining movement; therefore, one should be constantly in motion. Keep moving, keep moving on!”]
This hymn is about the long endless journey towards self-realization which each one of us must embark on, and each verse ends with the refrain: ‘Charaiveti, Charaiveti’, meaning, oh traveller, march along, march along!’
Harih Om, sanno mitrah sam varunah | sanno bhavatvaryamaa | sanna indro brihaspatih; sanno Vishnu-rurukramah; namo brahmanay   namaste vaayo; tvameva pratyaksham brahmaaci | tvameva pratyaksham brahma vadishyaami | ritam vadishyaami |  satyam vadishyaami | tanmaamavatu | tadvaktaaramavatu | avatu maam | avatu vaktaaram || Om saantih, saantih, saanti  || (Taittireeya Upanishad)
May Mitra and Varuna be blissful to us; May Aryamaa (one of the Aadityas) be blissful to us; May Indra and Brihaspati be blissful to us; May Vishnu  of vast strides grant us happiness; O Vaayu’ salutation unto you; Thou art verily Brahman immediate; I shall call thee alone as immediate Brahman; I shall call you Ritaa or righteousness. I shall call you Truth. May that Brahman protect the teacher! May it protect me! May it protect the teacher! Om, Peace be; Peace be; Peace be.
The mantra addresses the Supreme as Lord of day, night, might, speech, and space and pleads to grant peace in all of them. The mantra plays obeisance to Brahman of all power; brings to focus   our need to speak truth and pleads to good Lord   to guard the Guru and  his disciple  against all harm.
This Mantra   in Taittareeya is to the Householder
Ritam cha svadhyaaya pravachane  cha | Satyam cha svaadhyaaya pravachane  cha| Tapascha svaadhyaaya pravachane  cha|  Damaascha svaadhyaaya pravachne  cha | Samascha svaadhyaaya pravachane cha | Agnyascha svaadhyaaya pravachane  cha | Agnihotramcha svaadhyaaya pravchane  cha |Athitiyascha svaadhyaaya pravachane cha | Maanusham cha svaadhyaaya pravachane  cha  | Prajanascha svaadhyyaaya pravachane cha |  Prajaatischa svaadhyaaya pravachane  cha| Sathyamiti Satyavachaa raatheetarah | Tapa iti Taponityah Paurusishthih | Svaadhyaayapravachane eveti naako maudgilyah | taddhitapastaddhi tapah ||
This mantra prescribes Karmas that are to be performed by the householder as accessories to Brahmavidya. Ritam means words of truth and satyam means to see all alike-ritam satyam Parambrahma. Practice right conduct, be truthful always, master the passions, control the senses, strive for peace always, rouse kundalini, serve humanity, beget progeny—Learning and Teaching. Satyavacha says: “Be truthful always” Taponitya says: “Master the Passions”.  Sage Naka  Moudgilya  declares: “ Learning and teaching are necessary for spiritual progress”
We have in the Taittiriya Upanishad a valedictory exhortation from the sage (Rishi) to his students (sishyas) in the Gurukala on successful completion of Vedic studies. This reveals to us something about the system of education prevalent in Vedic period that produced the cultured and respected subjects in society amongst the ancient inhabitants of India. The teacher in this mantra instructs the pupils thus:                                                                                                                                                                                          
“Vedam anoochya-aachaaryo-ante-vaasinam-anusaasti | Satyam vada | Dharmam chara | Svaadhyaayaan maa pramadah | Aachaaryaaya priyam dhanam-aahritya prajaatantum maa vyavac-chetseeh | Satyaan na  pramaditavyam | Dharmaan na pramaditavyam | Kusalaan na pramadi-tavyam | Bhootyai na pramaditavyam | Svaadhyaaya pravachanaabhyaam na pramaditavyam || Deva pitri kaaryaabhyaam na Pramaditavyam | Maatru devo bhava | Pitru devo bhava | Aachaarya devo bhava | Atithi devo bhava  ||

Yaanyan-avadyaani karmaani | Taani sevitavyaani | Noe itaraani | Yaany-asmaakagam sucharitaani | Taani tvayoepaasyaani | Noe itaraani || Ye ke chaasmac-chreyaamsoe braahmanaah | Teshaam tvayaasane na prasvasitavyam                Sraddhayaa deyam | Asraddhayaa deyam | Sriyaa deyam | Hriyaa deyam || Bhiyaa deyam  | samvidaa deyam || bAtha yadi te karmavichikitsaa vaa vrittivichikistaa vaa syaat | Ye tatra braahmanaas- sam-marsinah | Yuktaa aayuktaah | Alookshaa dharmakaamaah syuh | Yathaa te tatra varteran  Tathaa tatra vartethah Athaabhyaa-khyaateshu | Ye tatra braahmanaah sam-marsinah | Yuktaa Aayuktaah | Alookshaa dharma-kaamaah syuh | Yathaa te teshu varteran | Tathaa teshu vartethah ||

Esha aadesah | Esha upadesah   | Eshaa vedopanishat | Etad-anusaasanam | Evam upaasitavyam | Eva-muchaitad-upaasyam ||” (Taitariya Upanishad I-XI-1 Sikshaavalli)

“Speak what is true. Do your duties. Continue, without neglect, the daily study of the Vedas*. Now that you have come to the end of your stay with your teacher, marry and bring forth progeny. Do not swerve from Truth and Dharma, and contribute something useful to the social economy. Achieve greatness, and do not fail to refresh your memory in respect of what you have learnt. Remember the gods and your ancestors. Honor your Mother. Look upon her as God. Honor your Father. Look upon him as God. Honor your Teacher.  Look upon him as God. Honor your Guest. Look upon him as if God came to receive your attention. May you ever exercise your understanding and, distinguishing the good from the blame-worthy! Avoid the latter and always do what is good. Follow all that was good in your teacher’s life, not any other. You will meet with better men than even the teachers with whom you have lived. Show them due respect.
Give gifts with faith, not casually but with joy, with humility, with fear and with wisdom.
 If your mind is troubled with any doubt as to what is right or wrong, follow the example of gentle and pious elders living in your neighborhood in regard to those matters. These are the codes of conduct.  These are the teachings”.

Annam na nindyaat Praano vaa annam—Respect Food; the body is made for food; Annam na parichaksheeta Aapo vaa annam  Jyotirannadam—Waste not food, waste not water, waste not fire; Annam  bahu kurveeta Prithivee vaa annam—Increase food. The earth can yield much more; Na Kanchana vasatau pratyaachaksheeta--Never refuse food to those who are hungry. (Tai.Up.—7 to 10)  

Om vang me manasi pratishthita mano me vachi | pratisthitamaviravirma edhi vedasya ma anisthah srutam | me ma prahasih anenadhitenahoratra nsandadhamritam |vadishyaami  satyam vadisyami tanmamatatu |  tadvaktaramavatu avatu mamavatu |vaktaram-avatu vaktaram | aum santih santih santih harih om ||
May my word be one with my thought and my thought be one with my word! O Merciful Lord! Let me   realize you in my consciousness! May I realize the truth of the scriptures and translate it into my daily life! May I proclaim the truth   of the scriptures! May I speak the truth! May I protect me! And may I protect my teacher!
Esha brahmaisha indra esha prajaapatirete sarve devaa imaani cha pancha mahaabhootaani prithivee vaayuraakaasa apo-joyteem-sheetyetaani imaani cha kshudramisraaneeva  | bieeaani itaraani chetaraani cha andaajaani cha jaroojaanicha svedajani choedbhijjaani cha asvaah gaavah purushaa hastino yadkinchedam praani jangamamcha patatri cha yaccha sthaavaram  | sarvam tat prajnanetram prajnane pratisthitam prajnanetro lokah prajna pratistha prajnanam brahma || (Ai.Up. 3-3)

The Supreme is in all. He is all the gods, the five elements, earth, air, fire, water, space; all creatures, great or small, born of eggs, of wombs, of heat, of shoots, horses, cows, elephants, men, and  women; all beings that v walk; all being that fly;  all that neither walk or fly; all moving and non-moving beings—Know that  the Omniscient Personality of God head who is the source of the impersonal Brahma has manifested all these different animate and inanimate objects through His power of Brahman. For the Lord is the source of the spiritual and material worlds everything emanates from Him, knowing this one can go to Him. Prajna is pure consciousness. The world rests on Prajna and Prajna is Brahman -(Aitreya 3-1-3)
The Knowledge of Paramaatman is the means of   liberation. That great person who is in the orb of the Sun, who is of the nature of the flame, and who is beyond darkness is to be meditated upon. I know that Great person for meditation says the sage of this Mantra.
Vedaahmetam Purusham Mahaantam aadityavarnam tamasah parastaat |tameva bviditvaa atimrityumeti naanyah panthaa vidyate ayanaaya || (Purushasookta)
I know that Purusha who is great, who is of the brilliance of the Sun and who is beyond matter. Knowing him alone one does not go beyond death. For attaining that there is no other path.
 Aaseedekameva adviteeyam… ..sattvameva somyedagra aaseet ekameva adviteeyam….bahu- syaam prajaayeti—tadiaksahta bahusyaam prajaayeiti –(Chhandogya 6-2/1 to 3)
SAT (Existence) — "In the beginning this [universe] was Being (Sat) alone, one only without a second."  That Satvas hailed as Brahman as it expanded.   The Sath deliberated: “I shall be many. May I manifest Myself numerously!”
"All this that we see in the world is Brahman."    sarvam khalv idam brahma.   (Ch.Up.3-14-1)
CHIT (Consciousness)       "Brahman is Consciousness”--  prajnanam brahma. (Aitareya Upanishad 3.1.3)
ANANADA (Bliss) — “Aaando Brahmeti”--Brahman is bliss (ananda)." (Taittiriya Upanishad 3.6.1)
Yadvaachaa anabhyuditam ye na vaagabhyudyate | tadeva brahma tvam viddhi nedam yadidamupaasate || (Ai.up. 1-5)

That which is not illuminated by speech, but what which, they say. Illumines speech, know that alone to be Brahman. It is not this which people worship (in temples and at homes).
The Self (the Soul) is Brahman --“ayam atma brahma”. (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5)
I am Brahman—“aham brahmasmi” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10)
Brahman is Consciousness -- “prajnanam brahma”. (Aitareya Upanishad 3.1.3)
 All this is indeed Brahman--   Sarvam khalvidam brahma”. (Chandogya Upanishad 3.14.1)
Sarvam hotadribrahmaayamaatmaa brahma | soyamaatmaachatushpat || (Ma.Up. 1-2)
This Atman is Brahman. This Atman has four quarters   [The first three quarters correspond to the letters of AUM: 1 = A, 2 = U, 3 = M. The fourth quarter is silence.] 
Atah param naanyadaneeyasamhi paraatparam yanmahato mahaantam |
Yadekam avyaktam anantaroopam viswam puraanam tamasah parastaat // Mn. Up. 5 //
The Supreme is without the second, imperceptible, has unlimited forms; it is the universe and the ancient that remains beyond darkness or Prakriti that is higher than the highest--nothing else exists other than or subtler than Supreme Being.

Gayatri Mantra
Among all these mantras the most popular and powerful is the Gayatree Mantra found in Rigveda III-62-10 and repeated in many Upanishads. Mahaanaarayana Upanishad prescribe 3 types of Gayatree mantras in order to enable breath control according to one’s capabilities—The long, medium and short as detailed below:
Om bhooh | Om bhuvah | Ogam suvah | Om mahah | Om janah | Om tapah | O(ga)m satyam Om tat saviturvarinyam bhargoe devasya dheemahi | dhiyoe yoenah | prachoedayaat | Om-aapoe jyotee rasoe-amritam brahma bhoor-bhuvas-suvaroem ||

The Bhooloka is having Brahman as its inner self. The worlds Bhuvah, Suvah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam are having Brahman as their inner-self. We meditate upon the worshipful prowess of the Lord Savitr, the cause of this universe, who prompts our intellect. Water and light, the taste, the liberated self are all Brahman. The three worlds Bhooh, Bhuvah and Suvah are also Om or Brahman.
 [This is the famous Gayatree Mantra used in Praanaayaama (Breath-control exercise) in Yoga- saastra. Brahman prompts our Jnaanedriyas, vital senses (organs of perception). This is the Mantra which is administered to the youngster during Upanayana Samskaara, known as Brahmopadesa. Aapah and Jyotih stand for the five elements. Savitr here means Brahman]
Om bhoor-bhuvas-suvar-mahar-janas-tapas-satyam tad brahma tad-aapa aapoe jyoetee-rasoe-amritam brahma bhoor-bhuvas-suvaroem ||
The seven worlds Bhooh, Bhuvah, Suvah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam are contained in Brahman or Brahmaatmaka. They are having Brahman as their Antaryami or inner-self. That is Brahman. That is water. Water, fire, the taste characteristic, and the liberated souls are all due to Brahman. The three worlds Bhooh, Bhuvah, and Suvah are Om meaning Brahman.
Om tad Brahma | Om tad Vaayuh | Om tadaatmaa | Om tat satyam | Om tat sarvam | Om tat puroer-namah ||

Om is that Brahman. Om is that Air (Vaayu). Om is that Aatman (Self). Om is all that. Om is that primeval cause that existed before creation; so obeisance unto that Pranava (Om).

Spiritual view:
Gayatri Mantra is believed as one of the most powerful and supreme mantras in Hindu religion. According to the teachers and preachers of Krishnamacharya lineage, Gayatri is the Mother of all the Vedas and has the power of destroying all sins. Reciting Gayatri mantra brings the same glory and result as the recitation of all four Vedas together brings. Every word of the Gayatri mantra are arranged in a specific manner to create a powerful force and impact on mind, soul and body. The significance of Gayatri Mantra is way too difficult to be analyzed by humans in fact it’s beyond the human reach. However, the power of Gayatri mantra can be felt by only the individual who enchants it.
 Scientific view:
Dr. Howard Steingeril, an American scientist, collected #Mantras, #Hymns and invocations from all over the world and tested their strength in his Physiology Laboratory.
Gayathri Mantra produced 110,000 sound waves per second.
This was the highest and was found to be the most powerful hymn in the world. Though the combination of sound or sound waves of a particular frequency, the Mantra is claimed capable of developing specific spiritual potentialities.
The Hamburg University initiated research into the efficacy of the Gayathri Mantra both on the mental and physical plane of CREATION...


Transformation of prayers into wills is exemplified by the Peace Invocations (Śānti Mantras) of Upaniṣads; no Deva or Lord is addressed therein for securing anything. The only exception is the Upaniṣads under Atharva Veda, namely Praśna, Muṇḍaka and Māṇḍūkya; note that Atharva is a later compilation. Śānti Mantras appear in the beginning and end of the Upaniṣads. The same Śānti Mantra appears in all the Upaniṣads under a particular Veda. Since Yajerveda has two branches, namely the Kṛṣṇa and Śukla Yajurvedas, separate Śānti Mantras are used in each of them. Thus there are five important Śānti Mantras; we shall have a look at them all.
Let us first see the Śānti Mantra of Aitareya Upaniṣad, the only Principal Upaniṣad under Ṛgveda.
वाङ्मे मनसि प्रतिष्ठिता | मनो मे वाचि प्रतिष्ठितम् | आविराविर्म एधि | वेदस्य आणीस्थः| श्रुतं मे मा प्रहासीरनेनाधीतेनाहोरात्रान् संदधामि | ऋतं वदिष्यामि सत्यं वदिष्यामि | तन्मामवतु तद्वक्तारमवतु | अवतु मां अवतु वक्तारं अवतु वक्तारम् ||
शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः
vāṅme manasi pratiṣṭhitā; mano me vāci pratiṣṭhitaṃ; āvirāvirma edhi; vedasya ma
āṇīsthaḥ; śrutaṃ me mā prahāsīranenādhītenāhorātrān saṃdadhāmi; ṛtaṃ vadiṣyāmi satyaṃ vadiṣyāmi; tanmāmavatu tadvaktāramavatu; avatu māṃ avatu vaktāraṃ avatu vaktāram.
om śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ
Word Meaning: vāk- speech (utterance); me- my; manasi- in mind; pratiṣṭhitā- established; manaḥ- mind; vāci- in speech; pratiṣṭhitaṃ- established; āvis- evident, manifest; āvirāvis- more and more evident; ma- to me; edhi- enlarged, more clarified or apparent; vedasya- of Veda, of learning; ma- to me, my; āṇī- instruments, means, agents; sthaḥ- (you two) are; śrutaṃ- whatever learned; me- to me; mā- not; prahāsīḥ- be lost; anenādhītena- by that learning; ahorātrān- day and night; saṃdadhāmi- I shall unite; ṛtaṃ- SAT, the ruling principle of the world; vadiṣyāmi – I shall speak of; satyaṃ Satyam; tat- that; mām- me; avatu- may protect; vaktāram- the expounder, teacher; avatu māṃ – may I be protected; avatu vaktāraṃ – may the teacher be protected.
śāntiḥ- peace, calmness.
Mantra Meaning: My speech (utterance) is established in my mind; my mind is established in my speech. (May everything) be more and more evident and clarified to me. (O, speech and mind), you two are my instruments for learning. May what I have learnt be never lost. I shall unite day and night by that learning. I shall speak of SAT and Satyam; May that protect me and the teacher. May I be protected; may the teacher be protected.
The Mantra states that the mind and the speech are established in each other. What one speaks is what there is in his mind; what there is in one’s mind is what he learned by repeated recitation (by speech). This is the implication of the statement. It is obvious here that mind and speech are the instruments of learning. It is through them that one acquires correct and clarified knowledge. The prayer seeks that the acquired knowledge is never lost. The phrase ‘uniting day and night by the learning’ implies perseverance and constant effort throughout day and night. Ṛtaṃ is SAT which indicates Ātmā, the ruling principle of the universe; Satyam indicates, as we know, Brahma. ‘I shall speak of Ṛtaṃ and Satyam’ means ‘I shall study about Ātmā and Brahma’. ‘May that protect’ implies ‘may such study’ protect. Upaniṣads repeatedly declare that knowing Ātmā and Brahma makes one immortal. This declaration is relied in this Mantra.
Śānti is peace or calmness of mind obtained by alleviation of miseries; the word is repeated three times aiming to alleviate all the three kinds of miseries affecting humans.
The next Mantra is seen in Upaniṣads belonging to Śukla Yajurveda; Īśa and Bṛhadāraṇyaka are the two Principal Upaniṣads which use this Mantra.
पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते | पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते||
शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः
om pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṃ pūrṇātpūrṇamudacyate; pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate.
om śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ
Word Meaning: pūrṇam- Pūrṇam, that which is full, complete, absolute, saturated, whole, ultimate; adaḥ- that; idaṃ- this; pūrṇāt- from Pūrṇam; udacyate- emitted out; pūrṇasya- to the Pūrṇam; ādāya- having taken, having merged; pūrṇameva- Pūrṇam alone; avaśiṣyate- be left out, remains.
Mantra Meaning: That is Pūrṇam, this is Pūrṇam. Pūrṇam emerges from Pūrṇam. Pūrṇam on having merged to Pūrṇam, remains as Pūrṇam alone.
This Mantra, though short in size, actually presents one of the important basic tenets of Upaniṣadic philosophy. Upaniṣads say that this universe emerged from the ultimate principle, Ātmā and that it will finally merge into Ātmā. In other words, the universe is only an expression of Ātmā. It is well settled that Ātmā is absolute, ultimate and the whole; that means it is Pūrṇam. The words ‘that’ and ‘this’ in the Mantra indicate worldly objects there and here or far and near. All worldly objects are said to be body parts of Ātmā; they are manifestations of Ātmā. They are pervaded by Ātmā; they are actually Ātmā itself appearing in those forms. So, both are Pūrṇam; ‘that’ and ‘this’ are Pūrṇam. They emerged from Ātmā, the Pūrṇam; from Pūrṇam, only Pūrṇam can come out. So, it is said: ‘pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate’. What happens if all these merge into Ātmā? It will remain as such, as Pūrṇam only. Hence the Mantra declaration, “pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate” (Pūrṇam on having merged to Pūrṇam, remains as Pūrṇam alone).
Now we go to the next Mantra which is seen in Upaniṣads belonging to Samaveda (Kena and Chāndogya). This Mantra is an expression of an earnest wish to become one with Brahma.
आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्प्राणश्चक्षुःश्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि सर्वाणि।
सर्वं ब्रह्मोपनिषदं माऽहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म निराकरोद् अनिराकरणमस्तु अनिराकरणं मेऽस्तु। तदात्मनि निरते उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु।
शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
Oṃ āpyāyantu mamāṅgāni vākprāṇaścakṣuḥ śrotramatho balamindriyāṇi ca sarvāṇi;
sarvam brahmaupaniṣadam mā’haṃ brahma nirākuryāṃ mā mā brahma nirākarodanirākaraṇamastvanirākaraṇam me’stu. tadātmani nirate ya upaniṣatsu dharmāste mayi santu te mayi santu.
oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ.
Word Meaning: āpyāyantu- may be(come) strong, powerful; mama- my; aṅgāni- body parts; vāk- speech; prāṇa- breath; cakṣuḥ- eyes; śrotram- ears; athaḥ- and, further; balam-stamina; indriyāṇi- senses; ca- and; sarvāṇi- all; sarvam- all this; brahma- Brahma; upaniṣadam- declared in the Upaniṣads; ma- not; aham- I; nirākaroti- negate, separate off; mā’haṃ brahma nirākuryāṃ – may I not negate Brahma; mā mā brahma nirākarot – may Brahma not separate me off; anirākaraṇam- non-negation; astu- may there be; me- to me; tat- that; ātmani- within; nirate- attached, linger; ya- ye- which; upaniṣatsu- in Upaniṣads; dharmaḥ- ordinances, principles; te- they; mayi- in me; santu- may there be.
Mantra Meaning: May my body parts be strong; may my speech, breath, eyes, ears, stamina and all senses be powerful. All this (present here) is Brahma declared in the Upaniṣads. May I not negate (defy) Brahma; may Brahma not negate me. May there be non-negation; may there be non-negation to me; may that (non-negation) linger within (me). May the ordinances of Upaniṣads be always present in me.
The first yearning in this Mantra is for a strong body; this is because, without a strong and healthy body, sustained pursuit of the ultimate knowledge is not feasible. The second yearning is that there may not be any mutual negation of Brahma and the current seeker. This implies his earnest desire to be one with Brahma; he wants that this desire must constantly reverberate within him. Finally, he wants to bear in mind all the ordinances of the Upaniṣads; for, these ordinances are leading lights in the pursuit of spiritual realisation.
We shall now see the Mantra that is found in Upaniṣads of Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda. It expresses a wish jointly made by the disciple and the master. They want the process of learning and teaching to be a smooth one without room for any prejudices. See the Mantra below:
सह नाववतु | सह नौ भुनक्तु | सह वीर्यं करवावहै | तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै॥
शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
Oṃ saha nāvavatu; saha nau bhunaktu; saha vīryaṃ karavāvahai; tejasvi nāvadhītamastu mā vidviṣāvahai.
Om śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ.
Word Meaning: saha- together; nāvavatu – nau + avatu; nau- both of us; avatu- may be impelled, promoted, protected; bhunaktu- may be hungry; vīryaṃ- energy; karavāvahai- may we utilise; tejasvi- brilliant; adhītam- learning; astu- may it be; mā- not; vidviṣāvahai- may we cause to dislike each other.
Mantra Meaning: May both of us be impelled together; may we be hungry together. May we utilise our energy together. May our learning be brilliant; may we both not cause any dislike to each other.
The teacher and the student pray for being motivated together and for being hungry together. Motivation is for study; hunger is for imparting/receiving knowledge. To achieve this goal, they have to utilise their energy together. Such united effort is essential to ensure a brilliant output. Finally, the process of learning should not result in mutual dislike. There is a possibility of dislike in the absence of simultaneous inspiration and joint effort; that justifies the beginning part of the Mantra.
The last of the popular Śānti Mantras in the Upaniṣads is given below; it is found in Upaniṣads belonging to Atharva Veda. This Mantra is different from those given above, in that the prayers here are directed to various Devas.
भद्रं कर्णेभिः श्रुणुयाम देवाः भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः|
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवांसस्तनूभिः व्यशेम देवहितं यदायुः।
स्वस्ति इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः।
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमिः स्वस्ति नो बृहस्पतिर्दधातु |
शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
auṃ bhadraṃ karṇebhiḥ śruṇuyāma devāḥ bhadraṃ paśyemākṣabhiryajatrāḥ;
sthirairaṅgaistuṣṭuvāṃsastanūbhiḥ vyaśema devahitam yadāyuḥ;
svasti na indro vṛddhaśravāḥ svasti naḥ pūṣā viśvavedāḥ;
svasti nastārkṣyo ariṣṭanemiḥ svasti no bṛhaspatirdadhātu.
auṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ.
Word Meaning: bhadraṃ- auspicious, excellent; karṇebhiḥ- by ears; śruṇuyāma- may we hear; devāḥ- Devas; paśyema- may we see; akṣabhiḥ- by the eyes; yajatrāḥ- worshipful ones; sthirairaṅgaiḥ- (sthiraiḥ + aṅgaiḥ) with determined mind; tuṣṭuvāṃsastanūbhiḥ- with a satisfied or healthy body; vyaśema- spend, consume; devahitam- allotted or assigned by Devas; yadāyuḥ- life as (alloted); svasti- blessing, prosperity; naḥ- to us; indraḥ- Indra; vṛddhaśravāḥ- ancient glory; pūṣā- Pūṣa (the great nourisher); viśvavedāḥ- all-knowing; tārkṣyaḥ- Garuda; ariṣṭanemiḥ- one who wards off evils; bṛhaspatiḥ- Bṛhaspati (Lord of prayer); dadhātu- bestow.
Mantra Meaning: O Devas, may we hear the auspicious with our ears. O worshipful ones, may we see the auspicious with our eyes. May we spend our life time allotted by Devas, with determined mind and healthy body. May Indra, the ancient glory and Pūṣa the all-knowing, Garuda, the one who wards of evils, and Bṛhaspati bestow blessings on us.
Finally, we shall look into a comment made by some readers regarding the oldness of Upaniṣads mentioned in the introduction to this series. They objected to specifying the period of the ten most ancient Upaniṣads to be between 1500 BC and 600 BC. Their reason was that Upaniṣads are divine (apauruṣeya) and their age cannot be so specified. In this regard, it is to be clarified that all knowledge is apauruṣeya; even the simple arithmetic “2 + 2 = 4” is so. This is because such knowledge is not the invention of any particular individual; it is only a discovery by some person at some point of time. The time of such discovery is what we give as the date of that piece of knowledge. It may be seen that each sukta in the Veda Samhita is known in the name of some renowned Sage. Upaniṣads also are mostly presented as expounded by some Ṛsis. As such, there is nothing wrong in mentioning the period of revelation of the Upaniṣads. Dispute exists only in respect of the correctness of the period assigned.
It is clear from the above facts that nobody has any proprietary or tenancy right over any knowledge. Spiritual knowledge, like any other knowledge, is a universal property and every person has the right of access to and utilisation of that property. Let everybody realise this fact and come forward to get enriched in exercise of that right. It is everybody’s right and duty to acquire knowledge and rise up to the ultimate awakening. For, peaceful co-existence demands it.

1)         Ananta Rangacharya N.S., Principal Upanishads, Vol I & II, Bengaluru, India
2)         Swami Chinmayanada, Various Upanishadsa, Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, Mumbai, India.
3)         Ananta Rangacharya N.S., Rigvedaratna Samputa, D.V.K. Murthy Publishers, Mysore, India.
4)         Ekanth Easwaran,   Upanishads, Nilgiri Press, CA, USA.
5)         Various Internet sources
6)         Swami Vimalananda,   Mahanarayana Upanishad, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India.
7)         Sridharan Kartikeyan, The Science of Upanishds, IndiaDivine.Org.