Tuesday, September 19, 2017

NIRRTI THE PRESIDING DEITY OF MULA NAKSHATRA & DIKPALAKA



Nirrti, the Presiding Deity of Mula Nakshatra & Dikpalaka
(Compilation for a discourse by N.R. Srinivasan, Nashville, TN, September 2017)

Nirrti is Hindu (Vedic and Puranic) destructive Goddess of darkness, whose name means destruction. She is associated with pain, misfortune and death, and is much feared by many Hindus. Nirrti (also: Nirriti) also features in the group of Ashta Dikpalakas. 
She is the guardian or regent of the South-West and is often featured in temple iconography. For example, the Rajarani Temple outside Bhubaneswar features a statue of Nirrti controlling the South-West direction. She is depicted on this temple holding a sword and a severed head, and standing over a prostrate body, may be representing Kaali.

Contemporary texts tend to portray Nirriti as demonic or destructive and she is often linked to Kaali, Alakshmi or Dhumavati. David Kinsley, in his book on the Mahavidyas, contends that there is little evidence to suggest that Kaali is related to Nirrti, but opines that Dhumvati is an “amalgamation” of the qualities of Nirrti, Jyestha and Alakshmi. Arthur Avalon, writing in Shakti and Shakta does stress that Nirrti is both “goddess of misfortune” and also the “remover” of misfortunes like Vighnesvara.
Generally, Nirrti is associated with calamity & misfortune; death (particularly untimely death); poverty and infertility. There are also some indications that she is associated with stealing children. The Rakshasas – with whom she is associated – are related to disrupting the sacrificial rituals. Nirriti is mentioned as demon at many places in Valmiki Ramayana that refers to many aliens in God’s creation.

In the Rig Veda Nirriti is the personification of destruction, calamity, corruption and death. She is also however, the abode or place of dissolution or decay. A verse in the RV (RV 7.104.1,9-11) describes the ‘realm’ of Nirriti as an endless pit without light or warmth – a place  reserved for those who act against the basic ideals of Vedic society. Those who are condemned to the realm of Nirriti neither receive nourishment from the offerings of their descendants nor from their own accumulated merit. The following mantra from Srisukta is worth mentioning here:

kṣhutpipāsāmalāṁ jyeṣṭhām alakṣmīṁ nāśayāmyaham,
abhūtimasamṛddhiṁ cha sarvāṁ nirṇuda me gṛihāt. 

I shall venerate the elder sister of Lakshmi, Alakshmi, the embodiment of inauspiciousness and such evil as hunger, thirst, and the like for extinguishing such qualities from me. O Lakshmi! Drive out from my abode all misfortune and poverty.

In the Mahabharata Nirriti is the wife of Adharma (unrighteousness) and the mother of three sons: Bhaya (“fear”); Maha-Bhaya (“great fear”) and Mrityu (“death incarnate”). Another version of this text says that she is the daughter of Adharma and Himsa (“violence or injury”). She is also however, one of the creations of Brahma, as recounted in the Bhagavatam:

“Here is the story of Nirrti. Brahma’s creative energy was showing on his body and mind. Narada popped out from the lap, Daksa trotted out of his thumb, Vasistha spiraled out of his breath, Bhrigu crawled out of his skin, Kratu muscled his way out of his hand, Pulaha sprouted out of his navel, Pulastya wriggled out of his ear, Angira gushed out of his mouth, Atri brimmed over the eyelid, Marichi dawned out of his mind, Dharma burst out of his right breast, Adharma scratched his way out of his back, the god of love (Kāma) blossomed out of his heart, Anger bounced off his brow, Greed gyrated on his upper lip, the goddess of Speech (Vak) vaulted out his of mouth with the aid of a pole of nimble wit, the oceans rained down from his phallus, Nirrti plunked out of his anus, and the sage Kardama stepped out of his shadow. Dharma was Lord Narāyana Himself. Thus, Brahma’s creations came out of his body and mind.”

According to the Agni Purana the spirit of the “doer of bad deeds” leaves the body through the anus. The implication is that if the Jiva leaves the body through the lower orifices (rather than, for example, the head) then the future of the Jiva is bound to the lower worlds.

In a section of the Taittiriya Samhita which lists the various animals to be sacrificed to the gods, the pigeon, owl and the hare are listed as being sacrifices to Nirrti. Both pigeons and owls were considered to be inauspicious birds and there are is charm in the Atharva Veda which refers to the pigeon as the “messenger of Nirrti”. There are folk stories in North India in which Bhutas – believed to be the spirits of those who have suffered untimely deaths – take on the form of owls (ulluka). In the Dharmasastras, the cry of an owl is considered an inauspicious sign – a student of the Vedas who hears the owl is enjoined not to continue his studies until he has slept.

The association of owls and Nirrti is quite interesting, as later, the owl becomes the vehicle of Lakshmi. This might be an instance of the goddess “conquering” an animal associated with misfortune or delusion and taking it as her vehicle – as with Ganesha and the rat/mouse.
In later texts Nirriti seems to change sex – for example the Mahanirvana Tantra describes Nirriti as a god of dark green hue, seated upon a horse and bearing a sword.
 
In Vedic astrology Mula is ruled by Nirriti, the Goddess of destruction. It has the power to ruin or destroy. Its basis above is breaking things apart (Barhana shakti). Its basis below is crushing things. Through these three one gains the power to destroy destruction.
“In bringing afflictions Mula Nakshatra allows us to destroy their root, as long as they don’t overcome us. It shows the necessary destruction to proceed a new creation. Nirriti is Alakshmi or the denial of Lakshmi (abundance and prosperity). She is Kaali or the negative effect of time that we must protect ourselves from or use to our advantage” says David Frawley.

Going through Vedic astrology  of 27 Nakshatras (Birth stars) Grahas that are concerned with our lives are Sun, Moon, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Earth (Sun, the Star, five planets and the Satellite of the Earth, the Moon).  I wonder why the days were not named after these 7 astral bodies and also worshiped as  Saptagrahas;    only Sun, Moon and Jupiter find place in present day Navagraha altars. However Hindu daily worship rituals include Indra (Neptune), Varuna (Uranus) Prajapati (Pluto), Bhoomi (Earth), though they do not figure among Navagrahas. Vedic Astrology has not mentioned about Rahu and Ketu Grahas of Puranas as presiding deities of any Birth star from among 27. According to Modern astrology Mula Nakshatra is presided by the demon Ketu.

Mula Nakshatra born people are very powerful, assertive, self-standing and easily overcome all hurdles on their way.  Hanuman as well as Ravana are born on Mula Nakshatra and both were themselves responsible for their destiny. One chose the power of destruction and the other the power of devotion!

RAVANA, the mightiest Titan King and sorcerer of Silver Age was born   in Mula Nakshatra.  As narrated in Ramayana, he gained immense power and lordship over the three worlds through rigorous penances aimed at pleasing Lord Shiva.  This shows Mula's ability to gain power on a universal level through a close association with the root forces.   He however fell prey to the haughty, bashful and unwise aspect of Mula energy and met his end as a villain in the hands of Rama, the 7th incarnation of Vishnu according to his Karmaphala.  He was born with Rajoguna dominating.

See the contrast. Lord Hanuman also born in Mula Nakshatra is an ardent devotee of Lord Sri  Rama and is widely known for his unflinching devotion to Sri Rama. He is Chirnjeevi and came out victorious on many situations threatened with death— challenge with Sun, Simhika, burning of his tail in Lanka-dahana etc. Hanuman is the symbol of strength and energy. He is said to be able to assume any form at will, wield the mace (including many celestial weapons), move mountains, dart through the air, seize the clouds and equally rival Garuda in swiftness of flight. Lord Hanuman is worshiped as a deity with the ability to attain victory against evil and provide protection. He was born with Sattvaguna predominating and with lot of good Sanchita Karma and continued with ascending spiritual goal and achieved the status of Chiranjeevi to be ever present with us.   This clearly shows in whatever situation you are born you are still bound by your Karma which you can shape by your own strong determination or spoil it by your own will.

Nirriti is said to be the chief of the demons in Puranas. Ramayana often refers to Nairritis as ogres. He may be riding on a donkey, lion or a man and surrounded by the demons and seven Apsaras. The intermediate direction of South-west is ruled by Nirrti. While Puranas describe   Nirrti as male demon Vedic astrology describes Nirrti as female deity.  Modern astrologers identify Nirriti as Ketu Graha which is not a planet that is also not at all mentioned in Vedic astrology.  Horoscope studies on birth star and predictions of the future are based on studying the life of great people born on a specific Janma Nakshatra.  While Vedic astrology predicts   greatness of Hanuman born on Mula Nakshatra, modern astrologers have falsely identified Ketu the demon as the presiding deity of Mula nakshatra and also predict horror and misfortune for those born on Mula Nakshatra  based on the life study of Ravana who was under curse from four sages. This suits well their profession for good exploitation of people born on Mula Nakshtra by suggesting various expensive Shantis (appeasements) and Navagraha Homas. David Frawley a renowned Vedic astrology scholar identifies Nirrti with Kali worshiped popularly by Ramakrishna as Mother and by Bengalis predominantly. 

It is strange that a cut off and accidentally  immortalized  body and head of a demon,  alive due to the magic power of Amrita,  has entered   the altar of Navagrahas  leaving  out most worshiped planets Earth, Pluto, Uranus and Neptune,  but including lifeless Mars and Venus as well as  dreaded Saturn condemned in the Holy Bible. I refer Holy Bible because naming of our seven days are based on Greek and Roman Gods which the Western world has adopted. Saturn is presented as an evil spirit trying to tempt Jesus Chris on fast.  You now understand why we are wrong in worshiping Rahu or Ketu, the decapitated  demon and also believe in its influence on our lives! No mutilated Vigraha is fit for worship. That includes glorified Ekadanta who was installed by Siva as Gajavadana with two tusks but later made Ekadanta with a broken tusk due to sudden anger by mythological stories and then glorified!


 

REFERENCES:
1)      Swami Harshananda, Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India
2)      David Frawley on Vedic  Astrology, Facebook
3)      Wikipedia, Internet







Thursday, September 7, 2017

HINDU SCRIPTURES DEIFY VITAL FEELINGS, OBSTACLE, MSFORTUNES, & DISEASES



 Hindu Scriptures Deify Vital Feelings, Obstacle, Misfortune & Diseases
 (Compilation for a discourse by N.R. Srinivasan, Nashville, TN, September 2017)
 INTRODUCTION
Hinduism is well known for its philosophy of Pairs of Opposites like Sukha --Duhkaha, Vighna- Nighna, Raga-Dvesha etc. They are like hot and cold. To create cold as in a   refrigerator you need heat energy. So Hindu scriptures have deified vital feelings, obstacles, diseases etc. to overcome them in their progress and you see popular  icon, slokas and even mantras  to worship them.    You can see Dvarapalakas, subsidiary deities or gate keepers (obstructors), of the  main deity in all temples. Siva temples have Kshetrapala who occupies an important place while Vishnu temples have Dvaraplakas,   Jaya-Vijaya.  Dvrapalaka or Kshetrpala is the chief guardian of the temple. The image of Kshetrapala is usually naked (like Jina) and awe-inspiring. He is worshiped first before commencing the regular service for the day.  He seems to be an aspect of Bhairava.  The most popular Ganesha worshiped by Saivites and as Vishvaksena by Vaishnavites is an outcome of this tradition.  We all know the story of Dvarapalkas that was responsible for Narasimha, Rama and Krishna Avatars. The most popular deity today is Ganesha as Vighnaraja.
Please recall my recent long E-mail “Why deify anger and pay obeisance” motivated by Arani Series lecture on the subject of Anger by Swami Chidananda.     We often come across many deities in Hinduism focused on Shadripus, six enemies and Navarasas,   nine human emotions or feelingsa, vividly portrayed in sculpting and displayed by Fine Arts based on Vedas and Puranas.  So I went deep into the subject further to come out with an exclusive and detailed discourse including many such emotions and negative as well as positive  forces and feelings dealt  often as pairs of opposites  in our scriptures. I have drawn support from our Scriptures and writings from   learned people including from major Culture who focus on Love as the Universal binding Force which is treated in Hinduism as pairs of opposites like Kama--lust, desire and as a Human goal (ppurushartha), as well as a booklet about to be published by Dr. Kalai Mugilan, The Urban Monk--A Human Perspective: The nine Vital Feelings of Monk-like People in Society. Our Rishis have been always focused on noticing, paying attention and elaborating on these feelings from time immemorial as you will see from my discourse. Mugilan deals with Forgiveness, Gratitude, Hope, Beauty (Love), Brilliance, Belonging, Respect and Death.  My concluding discourse will focus on death as life’s journey. Love as a universal binding force and as a subject of  beauty and respect  is    very well propagated by the Veda mantras--Matru devo bhava, Pitru devo bhava,   Acharya devo bhava and Atithi devo bhava. Kama, that is  Love,  a  Feeling of Beauty   treated with respect and creativity is initiated  in Nasadeeya Sukta and  vividly portrayed in Kamasastra by Vatsyaayana.
The nine emotions contained  in Navarasa are: Shringara (love/beauty), Hasya (laughter), Karuna (sorrow), Raudra (anger), Veera ( heroism/courage), Bhayanaka (terror/fear), Bibhatsya (disgust), Adbutha (surprise/wonder), and Shantha (peace or tranquility).
Shadripu is made up of two words Shad and Ripu which mean six enemies. These six enemies are the six weaknesses which hinder us from realizing our true potential. They are as follows: Kaama: Desire - wanting things (including sex) (2) Krodha: Anger - getting angry about things (3) Lobha: Greed and avarice - not spending on worthy causes and being greedy(4) Moha: Delusion - getting caught in Maaya, trying for recognition and pursuing temporary goals.(5) Mada: Wantonness & lust - forgetting all morals and madly going after what one wants, including sex.(6) Maatsarya: Jealousy - not being able to appreciate others and lack of humility.
Our scriptures have deified   some emotions and feelings which are our enemies and some which are our beneficiaries and even prescribed Mantras to offer oblations by Swaha Mantra as you will see.
ANGER & DESIRE—Kama and Manyu
Even our Devatas are not free from the influence of Anger. Scriptures always speak of Kama (Lust)   induces Krodha (anger) and therefore referred in pair as vices which is very well illustrated in Ramayana:
Dasratha’s advice to Rama   in Ramayana:
Gunavaanapi tu snehaat putra vakshyaami te hitam | bhooyo vinayamaasthaaya bhava nityam jitendriyah ||Kaama-krodhaani  tyajasva vyasanaani cha | Parokshyaa vartamaano vrityaaa pratyakshyaa tathaa ||
To you, a storehouse of merits as you are, I shall tender friendly advice out of sheer affection. Resorting to even greater humility than before, constantly keep your senses under control and eschew violence born of concupiscence (lust) and anger
Manu on Anger:
Paisunyam saahasam droha eershyasooyaartha dooshanam   | vaagdandayoscha paarushyam krodhjo api gano ashtakah ||
Tale-bearing, violence, vindictiveness, jealousy, censoriousness, squandering one’s patrimony, abusive speech and cruelty in punishment are the eight vices of anger.
Manu on Lust
Mrigayaaksho divaasvaapah parivaadah striyo madah |Trauryatrikam  vrithaatya cha kaamajo dasako ganah ||
Hunting, playing at dice, a sleeping by day, slandering others, fondness for women, vanity, love of singing, playing on musical instrument and dancing and  strolling about idly—these are the  one that induces one  to Lust.
 Kama (Lust)-Krodha (Anger); Lobha Greed) –Mada (Arrogance); Moha (Attachment)-Matsarya Jelousy) are 3 pairs of enemies. Without experiencing these Shadripu (six enemies) at the fullest a person can't understand the meaning of the Love which is the soul. These Shadripu's pull the human from all the sides away from the soul and makes the life of the human miserable.  Through bhakti and renunciation, these 6 vices can be overcome.  So Vedas advice deify them and worship as Lords so that they constantly remain focused to get rid of them. For example Kamokaarsheet Manyurakarsheet namonnmah. This is a Nityakarma in Vedas and an annual event for Dvijas as ordained by Agama Sastras. Purans have brought in an unique deity Vighnaraja based on mythical   stories and made it most popular in Hindu worship on even  roads and  crowded bus stands with no consecration needed,  a unique feature among   all religions.    We have other deities too Adharmaya Swaha; Alakshmiye Swaahaa! But Vedas are very clear while they say deify both Adharma and Dharma  and pay obeisance but   only focus on Dharma as Vyahriti  of Brahman. Dharma is Sathyam and Sathyam is Dharma  says Brihadaranyaka.   "Rita(ga)m Sathyam Parabrahma" say the Mantra in Narayana Sukta.

“Do you know the whole family of anger? Insistence is its very dear sister; violence its spouse; egoism its elder brother; fear its father; insult and back-biting its daughters; enmity its son; jealousy its daughter-in-law; hatred its grand-daughter; negligence its mother. Please keep away from this whole family.{Courtesy: Pashupati Tekriwal, a Homo Whatsappean}”--Thus Swami Chidananda brings home to us  a powerful message to keep away from anger emphatically  highlighting the wisdom thoughts from Pashupati Tekriwal in his Arni series. He further adds:
 Anger is when you punish yourself for the faults of others.
·         Anger is that breeze which puts out the flame of your intelligence.
·         Anger is not a solution to any problem but is itself a problem.
·         Anger keeps you in continuous stress when you don’t control it.
·         Anger leaves you more tired at times than what a whole day’s work does.
·         If somebody can make you angry, she / he controls you in that sense.
·         If your smile is God’s signature on your face, anger erases it.
·         When overpowered by anger, you need more energy to sit quietly than to yell or scream.
·         The fool expresses his anger through shouting and screaming; the wise man brings his anger under control.
·         Silence can be of great help in the matter of winning over anger.
·         Count up to ten when you get angry; count up to a hundred if you get very angry.
Please recall Veda Homa mantras Manyave Swaha, Kaamaya Swaha, Adhramaya Swaha, Mrityuve  Swaha etc. The Swaha mantra is addressed to Deva and Devatas in Homas and Svadha  Mantra to manes or Pitrus.
I believe Vedic rishis have thought about very seriously on this problem knowing the Hindu mind. Anything that needs serious consideration and constant attention need   to be interwoven with religion so that we could rush to temple and conduct a Homa or puja. In fact this  Kamokarsheet Homa is  a Nitya karma meant for all not for  Dwija males only as  this is not prescribed as Upakarma ritual Mantra in the Upanishad. Hindu religious philosophy is extended even to  safe driving on roads and they  hang a Ganesha portrait in front! They also take a new  vehicle  to temple for worship and our priests have appropriate mantras for such a worship too.  Mahanarayana Upanishad introduces Kamookarsheet Japa and Homa Mantras with an introductory mantra as follows:
“Yadvo devaaschakrima  jihvayaa   guru manaso vaa prayutee devahedanam | araavaa yoe noe abhi ducchunaayate tasmin tadenoe vasavoe nidhetana swaahaa  ||
O Gods, O Vasus, that serious god-offending sin which we committed by our tongues, by our understanding, and by our actions, place that in those who come near and act in an evil way towards us (provoke us).  Hail (Swaahaa)!
This is a Homa mantra for self-purification seeking relief from such evil thoughts as it ends with the sacrificial term “Swaahaa” a term used in offering oblations to deities through the medium of  fire (Agnideva). The next two mantras described below as Kamokarsheet manyurakarsheet mantras only elaborate what is mentioned above.  Therefore these mantras are  meant for Homa which are also employed for Japa (repeated recitation) during Upakarma.
Kamoe-akarsheen namoh namah | Kamo-akarsheet-kaamah karoti naaham karomi kaamah kartaa naaham kartaa kaamah kaarayitaa naaham kaarayitaa eshaa te kaama kaamaaya swaahaa || 
Manyu-rakaarsheer-nnamo namah | manyu-rakaarsheen-manyuh karoti naaham karomi manyuh karta naaham kartaa manyuh kaarayitaa naaham kaarayitaa eshaa te manyoe manyave Swaaha || (61—62, Mantrapushpam, Narayanopanishad, Ramakrishna Math).
The translation of the mantras runs as follows:
Salutations are to the Gods.  Desire performed the act. Desire did the act. Desire is doing the act, not I (Self). Desire is the agent not I. Desire causes the doer to act not I. O Desire, fascinating in form, let this oblation be offered to thee, Hail!
 Salutations are to the Gods. Anger performed the act. Anger did the act. Anger is doing the act; not I. Anger is the agent; not I. Anger causes the doer to act; not I. O Anger, let this oblation be offered to thee. Hail!
 Since the word Swaahaa comes at the end of these mantras, these are mantras meant for Homa (sacrifice) for annual self-atonement like the one we recite in daily prayers for self-atonement (prayaschittaa)—“Sooryascha maamanyuscha…..paapebhyo rakshantaam” and “Agnischa maamanyuscha….paapebhyo rakshantam”. Unfortunately Sandhyavandana mantras are also made exclusive to Brahmin   males only where the dwijas   pray for atonement of their sins committed during the day. Does it mean others do not commit sins or they   do not need atonement every day?
Lord Narayana, to whom this apology is submitted, is sure to bear the acts of our omissions and commissions with regard to Saastras.
 According to Saayana Manyu is not rage in the negative value sense but rage towards the internal and external enemy. Vedas often refer to manyu as longing fervor and not anger or rage in the negative sense. In Taittareeya Brahmana manyu is eulogized as Bhaga and Varuna and also supplicated not to damage penance by intrusion. Here Manyu appears with Kaama or desire. It is therefore anger personified. Obstructed desire is source of anger.  Thus anger   is another trait of the physical and psychological equipment of man from which his true Self stands aloof. Therefore the mantra says Anger is responsible and not the Self in him.
”Manyurakaarsheet’” means “those acts that are committed out of anger. Manyu is rage towards the enemy, internal or external. Since the term occurs here in connection with Kama, it is translated as anger personified, for obstructed desire is the source of anger. All those cravings, instincts, propensities, inclinations, desires and needs    that express themselves continually in the thoughts and behavior of people are referred to by the word Kama or desire. And so obstruction of Kama in any form evokes reaction in the shape of rage or anger which supply the motive force for a wider area of thought and activity covered by human behavior.  A worshiper is represented here as offering repeated obeisance to the gods who witness the inside of all people and arraign them in the Bar of Divine Justice.  The angry person pleads not guilty and deposes that he/she, the Self in man, did not do any act, is not doing anything, he is not an agent. or an abettor; the motive force driven by desire is the agent that did acts and is doing them. In order to propitiate the Deity of Anger, so that worshiper may be left in his pure nature, as a resent of the withdrawal of all harmful angers, an oblation is offered into the consecrated fire.  Anger is another trait of the physical and psychological equipment of a person from which true Self  stands aloof. Once we realize the Self, there is no chance for any such anger or desire. You now see why Vedas have deified Kama and Manyu and offer prayer! At the same time Veda does not say you should meditate on Manyu as Brahman! 
 Saayana, brilliant commentator of Vijayanagara Samrajya has gone deep into the meaning of these Vedic mantras which clearly indicates that these mantras are meant for all and not restricted to Dwijas and that too restricting to males alone. Desire is personified as a deity in Vedas. Nasadeeyasookta announces that Kaama or God’s will in the form of desire to create the world existed at a time when this universe did not come into being.  Yadyaddi kurute jantuh tattat kaamasya cheshtitam || says Manusmriti II.4--whatever activity is found in a creature it is all due to the movement of desire.     Bhagavad Gita says Desire, Aversion, Pleasure, Pain, Body, Intelligence and Patience constitute Kshetra or field of the divine ( Divine is Kshetrajna)—Icchaa dveshah sukham dukham sanghaataschetanaa dhritih | etat kshetram samaasena savikaaramudaahritam ||   

Spiritual codes declare that the five universal elements and resident deities and one’s own heart witness the thoughts and actions of a man even though they are concealed from others.  Worshipper here is represented as offering repeated obeisance to the gods who witness the   inside of all men and arraign them to the Bar of Divine Justice. He pleads not guilty and deposes that he, the Self in man, did not do any act or it is an agent. Desire, Beauty to all in appearance, is the agent that did acts and doing them. Therefore,   in order to propitiate the Deity of Desire, so that the worshiper may be left in his pure nature, as a resent of all the withdrawal of all harmful desires, an oblation is offered into the consecrated fire. 
Now a days we find priests are greedy and even demand huge fees that is also greed or Kama an evil act (ripu). “Yatkinchit dakshina” or voluntary gift based on what one can afford received for conducting a ritual is not prohibited in Veda. The hereditary priesthood and the monastic orders are permitted to receive gifts.  A person of outstanding spiritual merits can accept free gifts without damage to his spiritual vitality.   Even such, must not covet, for covetousness destroys spiritual brilliance.   In Taittaereeya Samhita  it is stated that Kaama (God’s prompting) is at the base of all cosmic activities. It is responsible for the giving and acceptance of gifts.  The pure Self is not affected by that. God is that gives and God it is who receives: “ka idam  kasmaa adaadityaaha | prajaapatirve kah | sah prajaapataye dadaati | kaamah kaamayetyaaha | kaamo hi dadaati | kaamah pratigriheetaa| kaamena pratigrihnaati  | kaamo daataa  | kaamah  pratigriheetaa | kaamah samudramaavisyetyaaha | samudra iva hi kaamah |neva hi kaamasyaantao asti | na samudrasya||
It is  also worth recalling here following slokas from Bhagavad Gita chapter II:
Krodhaad bhavati sammohah sammohaatsmritivibhramah |
Smritirbhrmsaad buddhinaaso buddhinaasaat pranasyati || 63 ||
Tasmaadyasya  mahaabaaho nigriheetaani sarvasah |
Indriyaaneenindriyaarthe abhyastasya prajnaa pratishthitaa || 68 ||
From attachment arises desire, from desire results anger, from anger results delusion, from delusion results confusion of memory, from confusion of memory results destruction of Intelligence and from destruction of intelligence he perishes. Therefore, mighty armed one, he whose senses are well controlled from their objects has steady wisdom.
 Kaama esha krodha esha rajogunasamudbhavah |
Anicchinnapi vaarshneya balaadiva niyojitah | |3-36||
Evam buddheh param buddhvaa samstabhyaatmanaatmanaa |
 Jahi satrum mahaabaaho kaamaroopam duraasadam || 3 _43 ||
This is desire, this is anger, born as the constituent of nature called Rajas—of inordinate appetite and most sinful. Know it to   be an enemy here.  Thus knowing that which is beyond the intellect, and controlling the self (mind), kill, O mighty Arjuna, the enemy in the form of desire, which is difficult to conquer.
                                                                                                           
VIGHNA—Deity of Obstacles
Worship of Lord of Obstacles to have success in all our undertakings is also based on this Enemy Forces’ (Ripus) Worship philosophy. Lord Siva presented  Ganapati, his own adopted son (like Jesus in Christianity), probably  as He is busy otherwise for serious  things, in order to take care of our day to day petty  problems while he is busy on Dissolution and elevation of souls,    who is worshiped as Visvaksena by Vaishnavites in his original form with twin tusks  as leader of  Gajanana Ganas. You know perhaps Supreme created many species as demi-gods like Devas, Sadhyas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Gajananas, Hayavadanas etc. (Please refer to Swami Prabhupada’s description of creation in my discourse  on “One God, Devatas and  Grahas for worship by all Traditions “.  Siva might have removed    the temporary guard of Parvati that came out of her  body scum, and replaced him  by a Gajanaa with two tusks whom some worship as Vishvaksena.     Gajaanana with two tusks as Vishvaksena   is invoked in Vishnu Sahasranama_-Vighnam nighnanti satatam Vishvaksenam tamaasraye.  He is consecrated and worshiped in Tirupati who attends on  Balaji  as a body-guard   who supervises  Brahmotsva arrangements.
Puranas have   gone further and deified him   as Vighnaraja (King of Obstacles) but popularized him as Ekadantam which was meant to be Ekadam+tam(that One)  based on a mythological story    that he later   broke his one tusk in Anger  and   hurled at the laughing sun   while he was troubled by over eating and the serpent belt could not hold his belly.  Thus he could also be called Manyur Raja (King of Anger). He is also worshiped as Sat-Chit_Ananda Vigraha which   Swami Prabhupada refutes saying he is upa-devata (Demi god) and not Deva. But we have here a very popular deity Two-in-One where Vighna and Manyu both are deified. He will be an ideal deity for Manyurakarsheet and Vighnakarsheet Homa on Upakarma Day!
 The controlling demigods (devas) possess a life span that is equal to one day of Brahma (1,000 divya-yugas, or 4,320,000,000 earthly years). This category includes most of the elemental controllers as well as most of the demigods within the court of Indra. Various demigods such as Ganesha, Karttikeya, etc., are actually posts that are occupied by a particular living entity for one day of Brahma. At the end of the day of Brahma, when the dissolution waters fill the universe, they leave their respective posts and allow other living entities to fill them. For example, it is described in the Puranas that in the present day of Brahma, the post   Kartikeya (Skanda) is being occupied by Sri Sanat-kumara, the great liberated son of Lord Brahma. Sat-Chit-Ananda Vigrahah, further defines what differentiates Supreme Bhagavan   from the other devatas. Bhagavan has a spiritual body composed of sat (eternity), chit (complete knowledge), and ananda (spiritual bliss).  This is what separates Krishna from the 330 million devatas within this material world. The devatas, though very powerful entities, are ultimately embodied beings just as we are.   Even Indra, Ganesha and Brahma are eternal spirit souls covered by a devata body due to illusion. The only difference is the quality of illusion that is conditioning us. We are conditioned more by the lower Gunas of Rajas (passion) and Tamas (ignorance) whereas they are conditioned by the higher quality of Sattva Guna (goodness)” says Swami Prabhupada.  This Sanat Kumar’s arrival with 145000 angels on Earth is also mentioned in the Holy Bible in the Book of Revelations as I said before in my discourse on Venkatesvara. You may now understand why Sat-chi-ananda vigrhaya namah in Ganesha Ashtottara is not appropriate in Ganesha devata worship ! I am not sure why  Swami Prabhupada added Vigrah to Sat-chit-ananda; but who knows the mind of great saints! So I do pary chanting as in Ashtottara without thinking. We cannot make a Vigrah of Absolute Consciousness  yet we go by what our priests say often  "Please repeat after me"
In this context  I would like to draw your attention to a write up  on the Lord of obstacles  sent by the ISKCON Desire  Tree (please see Appendix) in which they say that  Ganesha is the son of Lord Krishna and Rukmini quoting another Swamiji and ignoring what Swami Prabhupada their founder has to say.  Usually ISKCON   followers quote mostly from Bhagavad Gita as we have seen in the presentation of Swami Prabhupada, but this write up from Desire Tree has completely ignored Gita.  How can they miss this sloka from Gita? : “Yanti devavrataa devaan pitrun yanti prituvrataha|bhootaani yanti bhootejyaa yaanti mad-yaajino -api vaa  || The worshipers of the gods to  go to the gods ,  the worshipers of the manes (pitrus)  go to the manes, the worshipers of the spirits go to the spirits, and MY (GOD) worshipers  come to ME. Who is this ME and who are  these devavratas? Are you clear about it?  Who are pitru devatas? What are Bhootas? Why Ganesaha be referred as Bhootaganadi Sevitam? Do you have answer? 
 The Hindu genius has the peculiar virtue of reconciling the irreconcilables. At a time when the Saivas and Vaishnavasa were at loggerheads the story in Bhagavata of Siva being enraptured by the voluptuous beauty of Mohini giving birth to Aiyappan must have come very handy. But this story of Ganesha being Krishna’s son to push his popularity beats all.  Why would Krishna who identified himself with Skanda in Bhagavad Gita would ignore to identify himself with the most powerful Prathama Vandita Vighnaraja?  Also though Skanda is mentioned as one of the names of Vishnu in VSN there is nowhere the mention of Ganesha but only Vishvaksena! That is why I am not sold to Puranas.  Even in Ramayana there is no mention of Ganesha anywhere but includes a chapter on Kumara Sambhava.     Muralidahran Iyerngar  from Singapore has done lot of research to   conclude   Siva-Vishnu  are one and the   same digging deep into Puranas to find out  Slokas to that effect   which I often forward to you. But Swami Prabhupada says they are sustenance and dissolution aspect of Parabrahman as controllers raised to the status of Devamsa who are among the 33 controllers. I have come across another story in which Ganesha is depicted as having Lakshmi and Sarasvati as his consorts.  There is no end to such myths which goes against Vedic wisdom.
UCHCHISHTHA— Deity of Refuse or Left over.
This is another opposite approach to worship Ganesaha like Ekadanta and Vighnaraja. I often wonder why Puranas should go to such low and aversion levels and  our saints should go on explaining how that is justified and is right? Probably this uchchishtha or refuse is for Ganesha’s rat which is also worshiped in a temple in Rajasthan. May be Alakshmi is the rightful wife of Uchchishtha Ganapati. May be this is the corrupted form of Uchcha Ganapati. Uchcha means High  or  Top  as in Uchcha  Nyayala (High Court). Then there are Uchhatara  Nyayalaya   and Uchchatama Nyayalaya—Supreme Court. So we have Upa-devatas like Hanuman, Garuda, Pradyumna,  Sanat Kumara Skanda, Ganesaha etc., Devatas that are 33 Vedic deities like Indra, Agni etc.,  and Deva, Brahman   to whom we pray according to our level of maturity (KG high School or  College levels)and the goal we focus on, asking for little favor, material gains or spiritual enlightenment.
Uchchishta Ganapati is an aspect of Tantric aspect of the Hindu devata Ganesha (Ganapati).     He is depicted with a nude goddess, in an erotic iconography. He is one of the 32 forms of Ganesha.  The devata derives his name from Uchchhishta   ("leftovers") or Refuse. The word refers to the food left over at the end of a ritual. Uchchhishta is the food kept in the mouth, which is contaminated with saliva, thus ritually impure and a taboo in Hinduism. In normal practice we offer food to Deva or Devata and consume it as Prasadam.
As a spiritual thinker and a student of Sanskrit I go by the meaning for Uchchishtha as remnant. Among several of its meanings. When everything in the world gets dissolved in Him he still leaves behind Uchchishtha Ganapati that is Remnant Group Leader to establish new order assisting Saguna Brahman.  But will this appeal to vast majority of his devotees to whom he is Modakapriya? Why not we adopt what is more appropriate and simple to elevate ourselves instead of going by the wisdom of Vaamaachara of Sakta concept. Vamaachaara propagates conduct involving violence, black magic, sex and anti-social behavior and tamasic in its mode of worship.  It has not become popular with the educated crowd who are not perverted. Uchchishtha is a concept from Vaamaachaara philosophy which is being refined to make it acceptable to all.
MISFORTUNE--Alakshmi
Please recall the mantra “Alakshmeem  naasayamyaham”   from Srisuktam.  Here we propitiate the deity of Misfortune and offer our obedience in order to overcome Misfortune.
Alakshmi is the opposite number of Lakshmi. She is misfortune personified. She is also called Jyeshthaa like Ganesha as she appeared before Lakshmi. Sometime she is identified with Lakshmi herself. Since the created world is a mixture of opposite and things happen in cyclic   order   both fortune and misfortune are the two sides of the same coin. Being part and parcel of this creation and hence our life, misfortune is no less divinely ordained than fortune. It is perhaps to teach great fact of life that even misfortune is deified like Vighnaraja
DISEASE—Sitaldevi, Goddess of Small-pox; Manasa-Goddess of Venom
 Puranas have deified   diseases which bring havoc like Sitaldevi.  Sitaldevi is the goddess of Small-pox.  The fear of venomous reptiles has created a deity like Manasa. Snake worship is very popular with Hindus. I have discussed on Nagadevatas, serpent deities before, while describing Nag-Panchami ritual.  Manasa is the sister of Vasuki, the serpent king, the goddess of snakes. Sasti is the deity that acts like a mid-wife. Pangs of child-birth may have induced Purans to hope for relief at the hands of Sasti. The list is too big to describe here to distract from the main theme.  Practically every village in India has a goddess as its patron deity. Their number is legion. Almost all of them represent the terrible aspects of Parvati.  Probably Puranas felt main devatas are too busy and therefore felt the need to create these exclusive subsidiary deities.  Yet we get offended when someone says Puranas are myths and beliefs focused on exaggerating and highlighting a specific issue!
KAMA—Positive Aspects of our Desires
This positive aspect springs from the Supreme as an urge to create when he was alone and wanted to create many. That is   why Vedas say “Aaatmavat sarvabhooteshu”the same Self abides in all.  Here is mantra from Nasadeeya sukta: Kaamastadagre samavartataadhi manaso retah prathamam yadaaseet | sato bandhumasati niravindan hridi prateeshyaa kavayo maneeshaa || Tirascheeno vitato rasmiresham adhah svidaasee adupari svidaaseet | retodhaa aasanmahimaana aasantsvadhaa avastaatprayatih parastaat || In the beginning desire (kaama) unfolded on it, which was the first seed of the mind. The Sages found the bond of Being in Non-Being, searched in their hearts breaking.  Their measuring chord was spread athwart. Was there below by chance, was there above? There were seed pourers, there were powers. Desire was below, beyond was will.
This mantra projects Ichchaa Sakti, love making,   creative urge, conceptualization and  others as  you see. Vedas say Kaama is one of the goals of life (Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha) but that Kama  is always regulated by Dharma in humans and is not animal-love.  I give below a Western thought on the subject from John Smallman which just reflects parts of Nasadeeya Sukta.
“As all of us here in the spiritual realms – the formless realms where there is only the One, Consciousness, the field of Divine Love in which all that has been created has its existence, in fact where all of creation resides eternally and joyfully – keep telling you through the various channeled messages, Love is All, there is nothing else!  Therefore, focus on Love.
We are always enveloped in and embraced by the divine field of Love in which all of creation is eternally present.  However, we can refuse the embrace, and most of us do most of the time because we are so caught up in the constant stream of distractions with which the illusion bombards us, and which seem to confirm for us that we are separate, abandoned, and alone in a dangerous world.  Most of us have seen small children refusing to be comforted when they are restrained from doing something, and getting angry as a result because they feel abandoned, alone, and unloved in that moment, and therefore they refuse to accept the love and comfort that is offered in the next.  It’s called sulking, as we well know, and it serves no one because it just prolongs the agony being experienced.
Love is all-pervasive.  All we have to do is open yourselves to receive It . . . from within ourselves where It is forever present.  However, judgment has become so endemic that its presence within us is scarcely noticed, unless a seemingly major provocation brings it into our conscious awareness.  And judgment blocks Love because it is a choice we make to distance or separate   ourselves from whoever or whatever we are unconsciously judging – often ourselves as not being good enough, smart enough, quick enough, or whatever other form of self-disparagement we use regularly against ourselves”
It is also worth recalling here the sloka we chant at the conclusion of 16-step worship of the   Devata with an appeal to carry our prayer to the Supreme:
“Rajaadhi Raajaaya Prasahya Saahinay Namoe Vayam Vysravanaaya Kurmahay Samay Kaamaan Kaama Kaamaaya Mahyam Kameswaroe Vysravanoe Dadaatu”
King of kings, we praise thee, who is the giver of all  Victory, who is the fulfiller of all Desires, please bless me with Wealth, to fulfill All Kinds  of our  Desires. Oh, Kubhera, we praise thee, Salutations to the king of kings.
Here through Vysravana (as Vyahriti) we pray to   Paramaatman alone.  The desires are of two types. One is ‘Aihikam’ (pertaining to this world), and the other ‘Aamushmikam’ (pertaining to the other world). In that Aamushmika also, the Dharma Purushaartha is again a desire, just like Artha and Kaama in the Aihika category. To fulfill all these desires, we have to seek the Grace of Kameswara, Lord of Desire.  Then, in the form of Kubera, He would fulfill our desires, and bless us with wealth and prosperity. It is said: ‘Dhana Moolam Idam Jagat’.  Dhana (wealth) is the basic need in this world. By ‘Artha’ is meant ‘wealth’.  No desire can be fulfilled without it. Even the aspiration for Heaven, pertaining to the Aamushmika, cannot be fulfilled without it, because, even for rituals like ‘Yajnyas’ etc., money (dakshina) is needed. However, only for the Moksha Purushaartha, material wealth is of no concern. Only ‘Jnyaana Dhana’ (Wealth of Wisdom) is needed. Hence, desire should be not end with the grace of Lord of Wealth Kubera but through him seek the grace of Parmaatman.
Thus, one who is ‘Moaksha-Kaami’ (one who is intensely desirous of Salvation), should seek refuge in Paramaatma alone, praying thus: “ Oh, Kubera who is not a Kubera, Oh Vysravana who is not a Vysravana, Oh Kamadeva who is not Kamadeva You are Self-Effulgent. Hence,  You alone should bestow on us the invaluable ‘Treasure of wealth of Knowledge’   and develop in us Icchasakti as Kamesvara, Lord of Desire.
Here I would like to draw your attention to my detailed discourse “Love is the Binding Force of the Universe—Calls for religious celebration by all” (2-2016), “Hindu Views on Conception and Child Birth and Nisheka Samskara” (7-2014) and “Hindu reflections on Mating Season Festival that Inspired St. Valentines’s Religious Day” (2-2014)” wherein the positive contributions of Love Instinct has been vividly discussed.
Why Temple Traditions have deified Kubera one of the Dikpalakas and Yaksharaja) as God of wealth and also God of Desire?  When you go through my discourse on “Love is the universal binding force this will be very clear.  According to Puranas Kamaraja who was trying to domesticate Siva was burnt to ashes but was restored to life at the request of his faithful wife Rati. Siva also made it clear that Kama will be Ananga (bodiless) but will be available embodied only to Rati. He is a spirit that haunts us in our Romance and so no Sthapani or sculptor has dared   to make an icon out of him. Hence Kubera is worshiped as Kamesvara instead  in Temple Traditions. After all the Supreme was the first Kamesvara who split himself into male and female and established  Kama as one of the Purusharthas!   
Hindus only celebrate Kama-dahana that is burning Kamadeva to ashes in March on a grand scale. This is also in line with Hindu culture as Hindus feels the subject as obscene and are even shy to talk openly about love and sex openly,  though many of them go through Garbhadana Sacrament. My discourse on Garbhadana is most popular among Blog readers out of all the topics on Hindu Sacraments.  Hindu Americans living with major culture, Christianity   in USA need not go by what India does.  Valentine’s Day in America is observed as a special religious day in churches and  Valentine Day Mass is held in all churches. Hindu American Temples are sitting on the fence but keep the temple open all day declaring it as Special Religious Events Day. Recently Baal Vihaar School in Nashville Ganesha Temple has observed this  day as    Parent’s Day  where children  express their gratitude to parents worshiping Siva Parvati  as “Jagatah pitarau”—Universal Parents.  That does not go with the theme of Valentine’ s  day  as I see   all devotees attending temple on this day  exchange greetings,   greeting all women with red roses and serving all women lunch. It will be better to dedicate this day to Kamesvara,  that is Kubera whom we daily pray anyhow in our worship as Kamesvara.  Vedas are   not shy to discuss about sex.  The whole section of Brihadarnyaka Upanishad talks about   Nishkama karma, Garbhadana and Conceptualization as well as Divorce and the Mantras used in those religious Hindu ceremonies. This has also inspired the Sage Vatsyaayan to write a book on Kamasastra.  Kubera  Deity is on the main dais   for worship in the holiest place Badrinath.

CONCLUSION
No doubt Vedas  have focused on negative contributors and opposing powers that influence our  lives which hinder the progress of meritorious deeds,  deifying them  and prescribing  mantras for sacrifice and also  paying  obeisance but at the same do not   consider them fit  as  Vyahritis (substitutes) for mediation as Brahman. Only 33 devatas and even a sacrificial material like Ghee   and water  are mentioned as Vyhritis but not animals that are sacrificed  like goat, horse, and young bull. Puranas have not only glorified an impediment like Vighna  but also recommend worship of  Vighnaraja with Veda Mantra “gananatvam Ganapathigam havamahe”  meant for Indra and Chamakam meant for Rudra. Even an Upanishad has been later composed in line with 108 original Upanishads that concludes with Skandopanishad, called Atharvaseersopanishad with lot of Phalasrutis. Vedas consider only 33 devatas and deities like Ganesha, Kumara, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Aandal, Hanuman, Garuda are all  Upadevatas highlighted in Bhagvad  Gita whom we worship for daily favors and  material gains.
Vedas also want  us to direct all worships of devatas to Brahman alone that should end with the following Mantra: OM tad Brahma, tad  Vaayu tad Aatma tat Sathyam tat Sarvam tat Puror namah||
Om is AUM where A is the opening alphabet representing creation, U is continuing alphabet representing Pervasiveness or Sustenance and M is the closing alphabet or representing Dissolution. Vaayu stands for all pervading sustenance aspect of Brahman. Sathyam stands for Sat=immortal, thi=mortal and yam=what is being regulated. Sarvam represents the Self that abides in all Beings. Puroh indicates perennial Brahman—what pervaded everything before, what pervades everything at present and what will pervade everything hereafter.

APPENDIX
(ISKCON Desire Tree  www.iskcondesiretree.co)

Vinayako Vighnarajaha—Lord  of Obstacles

Lord Ganesha is well known for removing obstacles from the path of pure hearted souls. Gokarna, a temple town in Karnataka, also known as Gokarna Mahabalesvara, is famous for the presence of one of the twelve jyotirlingas of Lord Siva. Lord Ganesha is said to have established this linga. The glories of the deity of Vinayaka Ganesha of Gokarna are described by Sri Vadiraja Mahan in Tirtha prabandhah, paschima prabandhah:

dustanam vighnakarta sucarita sujanastoma vighnapaharta
tasmad vighnadhipo ‘ham mata iti  sudhiyam spastam ajnapanaya |
paulastyecchantarayah* sroyovighnadhirajah pradisatu  satatam bhuri gauri tanujah ||

Dustanam vighnakarta Vinayaka states: “I spoil the intentions of the bad, wicked and evil-minded people.”
sucarita sujanastoma vighnapaharta “I am the destroyer of the hurdles on the path of sadhus, pious people.”

Tasmad vighnadhipo ‘ham “Therefore I am called the king of hurdles.”

The truth is that Ganesha removes all obstacles on the path of pious, satvik souls, and creates hurdles on the path of evil persons. There is an interesting story in this regard which is related to the establishment of Gokarna. Here Ganesha helped the demigods overcome a great obstacle.

Once Ravana, the great atheistic king, went to Lord Siva’s abode, Kailasha. On reaching there, he began to shake it violently with his mighty hands. This created a great disturbance among the various planetary systems of the universe. On seeing this, Lord Shiva pushed Kailasha downwards thus trapping Ravana’s hands underneath. In great distress, Ravana cried for help and begged forgiveness.

Lord Shiva is also known as Asutosa, one who is easily pleased. On hearing Ravana’s desperate pleas, Lord Shiva forgave him. Ravana then offered prayers glorifying Lord Siva, and Lord Shiva then gave him a siva-linga and blessed him by saying that as long as he possessed this linga, he would be invincible. Siva, however, also warned him not to place this linga on the ground until he reached Lanka because once he placed it on the ground, the linga won’t move. Ravana then immediately proceeded toward Lanka.

When the demigods learned about the benediction Ravana had received, being fearful they requested Ganesha for help. Ganesha agreed. When Ravana was on his way, he stopped to take a bath at Gokarna. Ganesha, in the disguise of a brahmana boy, appeared before him and offered to hold the linga until Ravana
finished his duties. So Ravana gave the linga to Ganesha. As soon as Ravana went to take his bath, Ganesha installed the linga at that place.
When Ravana came back, he tried his best with all his might to lift the linga, but failed. While trying to lift the linga, it took the shape of an ear of the cow and so it is known as “Gokarna” and as Ravana exercised all his might to lift it up it is also called Mahabalesvara.
This story is narrated in the Skanda Purana, Brahmottara Khanda, chapter 202.

 The Brahma-samhita (5.50)  explains how Ganesha derives his power to remove obstacles from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda:

yat-pada-pallava-yugam vinidhaya kumbha- dvandve pranama-samaye sa ganadhirajah
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami ||

Translation -- “I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda. Ganesha always holds His lotus feet upon the pair of tumuli protruding from his elephant head in order to obtain power for his function of destroying all obstacles on the path of progress in the three worlds.”

A devotee who is aspiring to obtain pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead may pray to Ganesha to remove all impediments on the path of spiritual progress.

vakratunda mahakaya suryakoti samaprabha
nirvighnam kuru me deva sarvakaryesu sarvada

Translation: “Vinayaka (Ganesha) is effulgent like millions of suns. In all our matters, we pray to him to remove all our hurdles and impediments.”

Special prayers on Ganesha Chaturthi

Srila Madhvacharya describes in his Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya, chapter 20, that Ganesha was born to Rukmini Devi and Sri Krishna as Carudesna.*

 Lord Krishna married 16,108 queens and settled in Dvaraka. Rukmini, Satyabhama and Jambavati were among the principal queens. Each of the 16,108 queens gave birth to ten sons and a daughter. *Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.61.8-13)* lists the names of the sons born to the main queens.

carudesnah sudesnas ca carudehas ca viryavan sucarus caruguptas ca bhadracarus tathaparah
carucandro vicarus ca carus ca dasamo hareh  pradyumna-pramukha jata rukminyam navamah pituh
Translation--The first son of Queen Rukmini was Pradyumna, and also born of her were Carudesna, Sudesna and the powerful Carudeha, along with Sucaru, Carugupta, Bhadracaru, Carucandra, Vicaru and Charu, the tenth. None of these sons of Lord Hari was less than his father.  Carudesna mentioned here is an incarnation of Ganesha or Vinayaka.*

bhanuh subhanuh svarbhanuh prabhanur bhanumams tatha
candrabhanur brhadbhanur atibhanus tathastamah
sribhanuh pratibhanus ca satyabhamatmaja dasa
sambah sumitrah purujic chatajic ca sahasrajit
viyayas chitraketus ca vasuman dravidah kratuh
jambavatyah suta hy ete sambadyah pitr-sammatah

Translation:--The ten sons of Satyabhama were Bhanu, Subhanu, Svarbhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanuman, Candrabhanu, Brhadbhanu, Atibhanu (the eighth), Sribhanu and Pratibhanu. Samba, Sumitra, Purujit, Satajit, Sahasrajit, Vijaya, Chitraketu, Vasuman, Dravida and Kratu were the sons of Jambavati. These ten, headed by Samba, were their father’s favorites.

One who recites the above verses describing the sons of Lord Krishna, and understands that Vinayaka was born to Rukmini Devi and Sri Krishna as Carudesna, will acquire great virtue



REFERENCES:
1)      Swami Vimalananda, Mahanrayana Upanishad, Ramakrishna Math,  Chennai, India
2)      Swami Harshanada, Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Amakrishna Math, Chennai, Madras.
3)      Hans Heinrich Hock, An Early Upanishadic Reader, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, India.
4)      Jahnava Nitai Das, Gods Demi-gods and Incarnations, IndiaDivine.Org.
6)      Swami Vireswarananda, Bhagavad Gita, Ramakrishna Math. Chennai, India.
8)      Gita Press,  Srimad Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda , Gorahpur India