Monday, August 13, 2012

DIVINE DOCTRINES FROM BHAGAVADGEETAA


   DIVINE DOCTRINES FROM BHAGAVAD-GEETAA

(I-Discourse by N. R. Srinivasan, August 2012)

Mahabharata War was fought in the symbolic spot “Kurukshetra” the field of action. This spot was also cited as “Dharmakshetra” (the place of Reighteousness) in the Bhagavadgeeta as this war was fought to annihilate the vice at the hands of the virtuous. The result of this war was a foregone conclusion. Krishna is symbolic of Vision, Grace and Divinity. Arjuna is symbolic of Action, Self-effort and Jeeva (individual soul). Wherever there is the union of Krishna and Arjuna–vision and action, grace and self-effort, and Paramaatman and Aatman--there will abide the choicest blessings of life and the victory in the form of God-realization. Bhagavadgeeta starts with the sloka “Dharmakshetre Kurukshetre samavetaa Yuyutsavaha” (Pandavas and Kauravas assembled in the holy field of Kurukshetra eager to fight, and concludes with the sloka  “Yatra yogeswaraha Krishnoe yatra Paarthoe Dhanurdharaha tatra sreer vijayoe bhootir dhruvaa neetir matir mama” (the victory is assured where Lord Krishna and Arjuna are together).

Arjuna symbolizes a typical human being and the battle to be fought is the battle of life. The opposing forces are verily the things in life on which we depend for our security, but which we must let go if we are to grow spiritually and evolve. It is the battle between the forces of light (virtue) and the forces of darkness (vice). It is the battle that is being fought constantly in the mind of every individual in everyday life. Every man has and will be confronted with these questions and conflicts, irrespective of color, religion, age, time or Nationality. Geeta’s message is not for those who are senile, frail or awaiting death but for the young and strong, who want to shape their destiny and wish to live and enjoy life at its best. The youth should therefore start the study of the Geeta, early in life, at home.

Geeta is presented to us in the form of verbatim narration of the conversation between Krishna and Arjuna in the battle field to the blind king Dhritarashtra, who is indeed blind to the vices of his children and to the sufferings of the wise stepchildren, by Sanjaya, blessed with the power of divine vision granted to him by Vedavyasa, far away from the battlefield. Geeta thus begins with this sloka indicating the beginning of the narration by Sanjaya: “Lord Krishna spoke these words (of wisdom) to Arjuna whose eyes were downcast shaken by the prospect of imminent and devastating war, and who was at the same time overwhelmed with compassion and despair (being a humanist).

Arjuna is no exception to the conflicts in everyday life. He therefore asks Krishna, grieved and confused: “What pleasure shall we find in killing the sons of Dhritarashtra; upon killing, we shall incur sin only?” (1-36). Arjuna wavers in entering into battle. The thought that even though war may be against the forces of evil, war is still wrong, bothers Arjuna. The very thought that he has to kill his own kith and kin disturbs him. Arjuna is equipped with formidable weapons and Lord Krishna is his charioteer and mentor. He is confident he will win the war, but is it worth? Arjuna is grieved and confused. Arjuna represents the individual in stress. He is confronted with a critical situation, which clouds his thoughts, renders him anxious and makes him flee from reality. He is unable to decide or act. Divine intervention was therefore the need of the hour.

Grief and confusion are the result of ignorance, which gives rise to egoism, attachment, likes and dislikes, and manifold impurities of the mind. The teachings of Lord Krishna are meant to lead the soul to the state of spiritual victory, God-realization, where sorrow is terminated for ever. Lord Krishna says: “Do not become a coward, O Arjuna, because it does not befit you. Shake off this trivial weakness of your mind and get up for the battle (of virtue against vices) (2-3). You grieve for those who are not worthy of grief (for they have chosen the path of the vice) and yet speak the words of wisdom. The wise who know the true nature of the soul,  do not lament neither for the living nor for the dead (2-11). The wise, who knows that the body is mortal, and the Self (aatman) immortal has nothing to mourn about as Katopanishad says (2-22).

Krishna proceeds to help Arjuna out of the dark mood; and his manner of doing this illustrates the technique of an efficient counselor. Krishna commences with an exposition of the true nature of Self; unborn, immortal, immutable, intangible, and immeasurable. He preaches the doctrine of untainted existence of the divine Self, independent of the mortal body and explains our effective attachments as due to improper ego—projections of bodily characteristics on the Self.

Krishna teaches the doctrine of intellectual alertness and emotional stability which enable the individual to beat peace with one-self and others. Krishna outlines an integrated system of Yoga—the art of blending knowledge, devotion, meditation and action—in order to remove the cause of all miseries in life. The highest goal is the attainment of steady intellect (Sthita Prajna) arising out of God-realization. The steady minded person cultivates restraint, selflessness and detachment that lead to God-realization. A perfect Yogi is one who is skilled in selfless action, spontaneous in devotion, adept in meditation and lofty in wisdom. Lord Krishna says: “One should fix one’s mind on Me with loving contemplation after bringing the senses under control. One’s intellect becomes steady when one’s senses are under complete control. His mind is stable because his desires are subdued. He is settled in his wisdom, when his sense faculties are under control.  (2-61).  You have control over your respective duty only, but no control or claim over the results. The fruits of work should not be your motive. You should never be inactive (lazy) on that ground (2-47). Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat alike engage yourself in your duty. By doing, your duty this way there is no blame and you will not incur sin (2-38).

Action or Karma gives rise to bondage in the absence of proper insight. But when one performs action selflessly, detached from fruit, in the spirit of surrender to God and with profound insight into the nature of the Self, the same action is converted to Karma Yoga, a purifying process leading to liberation or freedom from the cycle of births and deaths. Lord Krishna says: “Always perform your duty efficiently without any selfish attachment to the results, because by doing work without attachment (altruism) one attains the Supreme Being. Selfless action is the path to perfection (3-19). When  there is a decline of righteousness (dharma) and a predominance of un-righteousness (adharma) I manifest myself. I appear from time to time for protecting the good, for transforming the wicked, and for establishing the world order (4: 7-8).  The time has come for both of us, who have taken many births, to act. When Karma is blended with Vikarma (special discipline) one is led to Akarma (a state in which Karma is transcended). Endowed with this art Karmayogi continues performing actions which purify his heart and are conducive to the good of the society. Krishna enumerates various disciplines to attain that status and asks Arjuna to resort to Karmayoga and get ready for the war, cutting down the ignorance born doubt. The Lord says: “Verily there is no purifier in this world like Jnaana, the true knowledge of the Supreme Being (Parabrahman). Among diverse methods of purification like sacrifices (yajna); austerities (tapas); giving gifts (daana) and so on, wisdom (Jnaana) is the best for it will destroy all actions good as well as bad, leading to in-action and ultimately liberation. One who becomes purified by Karmayoga discovers this knowledge, in course of time (4-38)”. “The one who has faith, sincere in his yogic practices, and has control over the senses, gains the transcendental knowledge, and attains perfect peace (4-39).

Yoga implies a blend of action and devotion (Karma and Bhakti), while Saankhya suggests a path of knowledge (Jnaana). For majority of people a blend of Karma and Bhakti is important and comfortable for the attainment of the heights of knowledge of the Supreme (Jnaana), where the very ego is renounced. Lord Krishna leads Arjuna to the profound insight into the aspects of a spiritual movement—Yoga and Saankhya. “Persons, whose mind and intellect are totally merged in the Eternal Being (Brahman), who have Brahman as their supreme goal and sole refuge, and whose impurities are destroyed by the knowledge of Brahman, do not take birth again (5-17)” says the Lord.

Meditation is the most profound and effective technique in the practice of Karmayoga and Bhaktiyoga on one hand, and, Jnaanayoga on the other. Krishna therefore elaborates upon the art of the basis of all mystic movements of the world. “A Yogi, seated in a solitude and alone, should constantly try to contemplate on the Supreme Being after bringing the mind and senses under control, and becoming free from desires and proprietorship (eliminating thoughts of  ‘mine’) (6-10)”.  The eight steps of meditation based on Patanjali’s Yoga-sutras are: 1) Yama or moral conduct; 2) Niyama or spiritual practices; 3) Aasana or right posture and yogic exercises; 4) Praanaayaama or yogic breathing; 4) Pratyaahaara or sense of withdrawal; 6) Dhaarana or concentration; 7) Dhyaana or meditation, and 8) Samaadhi or super-conscious state of mind. “Those, who perceive Me in everything, and behold everything in Me, are not separated from Me, and I am not separated from them either (6-30)” says the Lord.

Lord Krishna teaches the mystic art of developing devotion to God. God possesses a two-fold nature—Matter and Spirit. Matter is his lower nature while Spirit is his higher nature. A devotee must develop the art of worshipping God through every part of his personality—reason, emotion, will and action. “Four types of virtuous people worship or seek Me, O Arjuna. They are: the distressed, the seeker of Self-knowledge (the seeker of Truth), the seeker of wealth (Bliss) and the enlightened one who has experienced the Supreme (7-16)”. After many births the enlightened one reposes in Me, by realizing that everything is indeed My (or Supreme Being’s) manifestation. Such a great soul is very rare who realizes that everything is in fact the Supreme Spirit (7-19)”   says the Lord.

It is necessary to develop the philosophical insight by which a devotee may focus all his attentions towards the intensification of impressions (samskaaras) that will help him to remember God even at the time of death. If God becomes the ruling thought in his mind at the time of death, he will not be born again.

“Uttering the one syllable OM--the symbol of Brahman—and remembering Me, he who departs, leaving the body, attains the Supreme Goal (8-13)” says the Lord. Meditation on OM, mentioned here by the Lord, is a very powerful and sacred technique used by the saints and sages of all religions.

There is a mystic secret by which one may attain Liberation in this very life. This secret lies in relating to God everything one does. A devotee should surrender not only his outer actions but also his inner thoughts—not only the positive thoughts but even the impurities of his heart (negative thoughts) at the feet of the Lord. This is the secret of spiritual transformation.

“Whoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, or water with devotion and love, I accept that   offering of devotion by the pure hearted (9-26)” says the Lord. He advises: “Be in Me. Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to Me. Thus uniting yourself with Me as the Supreme goal and the sole refuge, you shall certainly come to Me (9-34)”

Bhagavadgeeta describes divine glories so that the mind of the devotee may turn to God at all times and in all things. To begin with, a devotee sees the glories of God in the majestic things of nature—The Sun, the Ocean, the Himalayas and others, but later he beholds the glories of the Lord even in the smallest and most insignificant objects of the world. “The Supreme Spirit indeed is Self of all beings, abiding in their inner psyche. It is also the origin of all beings, the sustainer and the end too (10-20). I am Bhrigu among the great sages; I am the mono-syllable cosmic sound, Om among the words; I am Japayajna among the spiritual disciplines (yajnas) and I am Himalaya among the immovable (10-25)” says the Lord. The fire sacrifice is generally considered as primary among the Yajnas. However, in the Bhakti (devotion) frame work, Japayajna or sacrifice through silent meditation is considered to be more important than the Haviryajna (fire sacrifice). Manu has stated that whatever else a Brahmin does or does not  he can attain salvation through silent meditation alone. Bhagavadgeeta incorporates Bhaktiyoga and so it emphasizes Japayajna.

Lord Krishna gives Arjuna the intuitive insight by which he beholds the cosmic form (Viswaroopa) of Krishna. Thus Arjuna gets the wonderful experience of Divine Consciousness. An aspirant of Brahman should be bereft of his ego and his entire personality and should become an instrument in the will of God. It is in the depths of surrender that his soul rising above the normal limits of time and space glimpses the staggering vision of God, which is at once supremely beautiful and supremely terrifying.

The Supreme Lord says: “O Arjuna! Behold my hundreds and thousands of multifarious forms of different colors and shapes in a bewildering panorama. (11-5). If the splendor of thousands of Suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, even that, would not resemble the splendor of that Exalted Being (11-12)”.* The beatific vision brings a sea  of change in Arjuna, as he has no more questions. This sudden and unexpected revelation of the Deity served as an Erlebnis (everlasting memory), with a vivid and impressive demonstration. It brought home to him the reality with a terrific force; and his ego involvement was at once shattered. And when he came out of it, he was already a changed man. Still Krishna insists on his “examining the position thoroughly himself and acting with full deliberation. In spite of his divine revelation, Lord Krishna does not undertake to command, but only counsel. Krishna leaves the decision in regard to fighting to Arjuna himself. “Do as you please” he says in 18-63.

The Supreme Lord says: “Those ever steadfast devotees who worship with supreme faith by fixing their minds on Me as personal God (saguna aspect of God), I consider them to be the best Yogis (12-2)”. Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that for most people the worship of the Saguna aspect of God (Murti worship--God with forms and attributes—iconic or Vyakta form) is easier than that of Nirguna aspect (god without form and attributes—Avyakta form). The Saguna worship, like temple worship, will automatically lead one to Nirguna worship. Lord Krishna outlines a series of disciplines for developing unflinching
devotion to God.  He further describes the characteristic of a perfected devotee so that a Yogi may develop them and thus become very dear to God.

Lord Krishna says:  “The knowledge of scriptures is better than mere ritualistic practice, meditation is better than scriptural knowledge and Tyaaga or renunciation (of the selfish attachment) to the fruits of work is better than meditation. Peace and calm immediately follows renunciation (12-12). “One who does not hate any creature, and one who is friendly and compassionate, free from the notion of ‘I’ and ‘my’, even minded in pain and pleasure, and forgiving that yogi  is dear to Me. (12-13)” “ That yogi who is ever content, who has subdued the mind, whose resolve is firm, whose mind and intellect are engaged in dwelling upon Me, and who is devoted to Me, is dear to Me (He would truly partake of the nature of the Supreme Spirit) (12-14).
                    
When a yogi develops a keen insight into the fact that his soul is different from the body, he becomes a better Karmayogi, a better Bhaktiyogi and a better Jnaanayogi. In fact he becomes more integrated in his personality. Lord Krishna says: “Spiritual Being (Purusha) enjoys three modes (Gunas) of material Nature (Prakriti). Attachment to the Gunas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) due to the ignorance caused by previous Karma is the cause of birth of a living entity,   good and bad. (13-21).        One who perceives that the

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* E.Robert Oppenheimer, who had studied Samskrit in his earlier days quoted this shloka from Geeta in its entirety, when the first nuclear device exploded in the Nevada desert.

Power  (gunas) of material nature (Prakriti) do  all the works and thus does not consider one’s Self as the doer, that person indeed  understands the Truth. He sees who sees all actions are performed by Nature alone, and the Self is action less (13-29), such a wise one will perceive the Supreme; he understands the Reality (Paramaatman); only he sees; others are blind.

The soul in the state of ignorance seems to be involved in saving the seeds of Karmic entanglements. But in the state of enlightenment it discovers its identity with the Absolute Self (Parmaatman) and becomes liberated from bondage. “Sattva or goodness, Rajas or passion, activity and Tamas or ignorance or inertia—these three modes of material nature (Prakriti) fetter the eternal individual soul (Jeeva), which by its nature is immutable (changeless), to the body (14-5). The one who offers to Me with love and unswerving devotion transcends these three modes of material nature and crosses the ocean of illusion (maaya), and attains salvation (Mukti) (14-26); Because, I am the basis of the immortal Eternal Being (Brahman) of everlasting order (Eternal Dharma) and of the Absolute Bliss (Aananda) (14-27)” says the Lord.

The three modes of Prakriti are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas as we all know. The task before a Yogi is to overcome Rajas and Tamas by developing Sattva in his personality, initially. Finally, he must transcend Sattva as well and thus become liberated from the Prakriti (material world) and its modes (Gunas). He is then, known as, Trigunaateeta—one who has transcended the Gunas.

“They speak of the eternal banyan tree that has its origin (root above in the Supreme Being (Parabrahman) and its branches below in the Cosmos, whose leaves are Vedic hymns (sacred chants of the scripture). One who understands this tree is the knower of the Vedas (15-1)” says the Lord. It is beginningless and endless. So is also the human body. Karma is the seed. Countless desires are its roots. Five basic elements are the main branches. Three modes of material are its sprouts. The ten organs of perception and action are its sub-branches. This tree is ever changing. Vedas protect and perpetuate this tree. Krishna describes a “cosmic fig tree” whose roots are in the sky, and whose fruits are on earth. “Slice the fig tree with non-attachment”, he advises Arjuna, thus ending Karma and obtaining Moksha. The   co-ordinates of Moksha are not given, because freedom if truly free can have no limiting co-ordinates. He, who knows the tree, knows that the scripture suggests the means of cutting down the tree also.

The interaction of Spirit and Matter has evolved the world-process. A yogi gains insight into the nature of Purushottama or the Supreme Being, who is distinct from Spirit and Matter and sustains the three worlds. The insight enables the Yogi to possess the weapon of non-attachment by which he cuts down the mystic tree of the world-process (cycle of births and deaths) and is established in Brahman. “The eternal individual soul (jeevaatma) in the body is indeed, my integral part. In the world of living beings, a tiny part of the Supreme Spirit becomes the individual soul. It associates with the six faculties—including the mind—of perception all of which abide in Nature, and activates  them (15-7). I am seated in the inner psyche of all Beings. The memory, Self-knowledge and the removal of doubts and wrong notions (about Eternal Being) by reasoning or trance (Samaadhi) come from Me. I am verily that which is to be known by the study of all the Vedas; I am indeed the author of Vedaanta and the Vedas (15-5)” says the Lord.

The Supreme Lord says: “ Twenty six qualities of those endowed with divine virtues are, fearlessness, purity of inner psyche, Self-knowledge, charity, sense restraint, sacrifice, study of scriptures, austerity, honesty, non-violence, truthfulness, absence of anger, renunciation, equanimity, abstaining from malicious talk, compassion for all creatures, freedom from greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickle-mindedness, splendor, forgiveness, cleanliness,  absence of malice and the absence of pride—O Arjuna! (16: 1, 2, and 3). Lust anger and greed are the three gates of hell leading to the downfall (or bondage) of the individual. Therefore, one must learn to give up these three (16-21). Let the scriptures be your authority in determining what should be done and what should not. You should perform your duty following the scriptural injunction (16-24). The Ten Commandments of Hinduism according to Pataanjali are: 1) Ahimsa or Non-violence 2) Truthfulness 3) Non-stealing 4) Celibacy or sense control 5) Non-greed 6) Purity 7) Contentment 8) Austerity or Renunciation 9) Study of Scriptures, and 10) Surrendering to God with faithful loving devotion (Saranaagati).

Even the unconscious path of a yogi abounds with pure impressions (shubha samskaara) based on the rise of Sattva. Consequently, a yogi begins to develop the divine qualities which are known as the Divine Wealth (Daivee sampat). On the other hand, those who do not follow the yogic path continue to follow impure impressions (asubha samskaara) based on Rajas and Tamas. They possess demoniac wealth. By knowing the distinction between these two types of qualities, an aspirant should shun what is demoniac and develop what is divine. Lord Krishna says: “O Arjuna! The faith of each individual is in accordance with one’s own natural disposition (governed by Kaarmic impressions). A person is known by the faith. One can become whatever one wants to be, if one constantly contemplates on the object of the desired faith (17-3). Penance done by men with great faith is of three kinds--Saattvika penance is done by those who are wedded to the fruits thereof and who are yoked to discipline (of self-control); Rajasa penance, which is fickle and untrue, is resorted to by those who want to gain respect in the community and honor or by those given to hypocrisy; Tamasa penance is undertaken out of ignorance and delusion and is characterized by self-mortification or by the desire to destroy another person. ‘Om Tat Sat’—this has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were created formerly, the Brahmanas (learned), the Vedas, the canon of wisdom and Sacrifices, the conduct leading to wisdom (yajna). Whatever is done without faith—it is called ‘Asat’. It has no value here or hereafter (17-23). The serenity of mind, gentleness, equanimity, self-control and the purity of thought –these are called the ‘Austerity of Thought’ (17-16). The above mentioned three-fold austerity of thought, word and deed practiced by yogis with supreme faith, without a desire for the fruit is said to be in the mode of goodness (saatvik character) (17-17).

In the Geeta, the first Brahmin (in the form of Brahmadeva), the gods and yajnas are listed as the first among the created things. But, the form of Parabrahman, from which all these have been created, is contained in three words—Aum Tat Sat, and what Krishna says here is that this canon of wisdom (Veda) is at the root of the entire Universe. The Brahman, in the shape of the letter Aum is supposed to have been the only thing in existence at the start of the Universe. Therefore, all actions or rituals begin with this letter. Tat represents that which is beyond ordinary action and which is desire-less, while Sat refers to pure action performed in accordance with scriptural directions, even if they are performed in the hope of reward.  Any shortcoming in the performance of a sacrifice may be corrected by uttering one of the three words of Aum Tat Sat, according to general belief.

Deluded by Maaya, a person finds him utterly dependent on the world. But when he surrenders to God, he discovers his innate freedom and attains liberation. Integral, whole-hearted surrender is the secret for spiritual liberation. Lord Krishna says: “The Supreme Lord, abiding as the controller (Eesvara) in the inner psyche of all beings causes them to act (or work out their Karmas) like a puppet (of Karma) mounted on a machine (18-61). Lord Krishna gives his divine assurance: ‘Setting aside all meritorious deeds (Dharma), just surrender completely to Me (with firm faith and loving contemplation). I shall liberate you from all sins (or the bonds of Karma). There will be no cause for any more grief. (18-66).The Lord takes full responsibility for a person who totally depends on Him. Lord Krishna gives his final advice to Arjuna: “Fix your mind on Me, have faith in Me, worship Me, and you shall certainly reach me. I promise you because you are my dear friend (18-65). “The one who shall propagate this supreme secret philosophy (or the transcendental knowledge of Geeta) amongst My devotees, shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me, and shall certainly come to Me (18-68). The verse promises liberation as the certain reward for loving devotion to the Supreme Spirit, and pleads that one must seek refuge in the Supreme Spirit.

Sanjaya concludes his narration to the blind king by his forecast thus: “Wherever there will be both Krishna, the Lord of Yoga (Dharma in the form of scriptures or Saastras), and Arjuna, the wielder of bow, with the weapons (Sastra) of duty and protection, there will be everlasting prosperity, victory, happiness and morality. This is my conviction”.   Abandoning   prescribed duties will be no sin, for the one who has sought refuge in the Supreme Spirit and therefore one need not grieve on that account.

Bhagavad-geeta emphasizes the obligatory and compulsive nature of Varnaashrama Dharma duties being an instance of scriptural injunction, as per Ramanuja of Vishishtaadvaita School. Arjuna being a Kshatriya had to fight; he had to do it in response to the command without reasoning about and regardless of the results that can be expected.  Sankara of Advaita School of thought suggests that the main theme of Bhagavad-geeta is to prove the superiority of wisdom to duty. The wise man has no duties (18-49). The problem of Varnaashrama Dharma duty as a Kshatriya and concern for kith and kin should not disturb the deeper and fundamental meaning of life. Therefore, in his opinion, Lord Krishna only counsels, not commands.

Geeta epitomizes the fight between the good (Sreyas) and worldly illusory good (Preyas). The former is spiritual while the latter is material. “Sreyas” is permanent while Preyas” is only temporary, and it is the un-informed who take the latter course while the enlightened choose the “Sreyas”. Lord Krishna on the eve of his departure from the arena of this world, after finishing the difficult task of establishing righteousness (Dharma), gave his three parting advises to his cousin brother Uddhava—1) Do your duty, to the best of your abilities, for Me, without any selfish motive, and remember Me at all times—before starting a work, at the completion of a task, and while inactive. 2) Practice to look upon all creatures as Me in thought, word, and deed, and mentally bow down to them. 3) Awaken your dormant Kundalini Sakti and perceive—through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions—that the power of God is within you at all times, and is constantly doing all the work using you as a mere instrument. These advices, short, simple, and easy way to God-realization, are equally good for all those who find the pursuit of yoga-technique as taught by Krishna in the Bhagavadgeeta difficult to follow.


This discourse has been prepared by N.R.Srinivasan, for the Vedanta Class at Sri Ganesha Temple, Nashville, TN, by suitably extracting, abridging, and editing from the following publications:
  1. Ramananda Prasad, The Bhagavad-gita, American Gita Society, CA, USA
  2. Subramaniyaswami, Bhagavad Gita, Hindu Monastery, Hawaii
  3. Mukundan, A Concept of Hinduism, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, India
  4. P. Lal, The Bhagavad Gita, Roli Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.
  5. Prof. Vrinda Nabar & Prof Shanta Tumkur, The Bhagavadgita, Wordsworth Editions Limited, U.K.
  6. Prof. S.K.Ramachandra, Geeta Kosha, Kalpatharu Research Academy, Shringeri Sarada Peetham, Bangalore.