Friday, September 27, 2013



 (Discourse by N. R. Srinivasan, TN., USA, September 2013)

Upanishads contain philosophical discussions that had taken place at various periods of time between different teachers and their students, regarding Eternal purpose of Creation and the Great Goal of Existence.

We have an incomparable literature on philosophy in the volumes of Upanishads, which are as true today as they were heard several millions of years ago, the authors of which are unknown to us. The rishis in their godly inspiration and intoxicating bliss forgot to subscribe their names or give references to their masterpieces.

Upanishads have given supreme importance to the acquisition and realization of the knowledge of Brahman and have sidelined the process of sacrificial tradition. The Upanishads teach that one should attain Brahman alone to attain immortality. The Upanishads are expounding many an imperceptible Truth regarding the ultimate objects of life. Truths that we cannot arrive at otherwise are expounded here. The following are some of the unique teachings of the Upanishads:

1.     Brahman is the ultimate cause of this Universe and everything else is dependent upon that one Supreme Cause.
2.     The Universe was created in a systematic manner according to the will of the Supreme Cause.
3.     The entity of Jeevaatman is an eternal principle without any origination or destruction but is going through the cycle of births and deaths on account of the world from beginning less time.
4.     The Jeevaatman should become aware of its true nature and destiny and has to shape itself in such a way that it gets rid of the association with matter.
5.     Everyone in this world is entitled to become liberated but it waits only for his aspiration and effort.
6.     All these entities viz. man, matter, time and the celestial abode are dependent upon the Supreme will of Paramaatman and one has to realize his subservience to Paramaatman.
7.     The way of getting liberated from the bondage of Samsaara (worldly pleasures and sorrows, terrestrial entanglements) is also taught by the Upanishads. One should seek the grace of Paramaatman through submission to His will and due participation in his duties that pleases the Lord. The Upanishads teach that loving meditation upon the Lord and complete surrender unto His will are the means of liberation.

The Upanishads are the ultimate authorities for all the different systems of Vedaanta philosophy. It is not an exaggeration if we say that Upanishads have influenced all spiritual speculations in the world and have been the foundation of Indian Philosophical Thought and Culture. All systems of philosophy have drawn from Upanishads valuable thoughts whether they acknowledge or not.

Upanishads like Taittireeya include a “convocation address” delivered to the departing students from ‘Gurukula’ the university. The teacher by way of commandments and advice focuses on: 1) advice relating to the individual himself, 2) his relationship with others, 3) his right actions in the world, 4) his attitude towards the eminent men of culture, 5) the laws of charity, and 6) his duty to follow the eminent living men of his own times. Over the shoulders of students the seers of Upanishads addressed the entire Sanatana Dharma Community to follow these commandments and advice.

The departing student was neither thrown out into the world of tension and chaos from which he was so long and so efficiently kept away in the Gurukula till then, as it happens more often today nor advised to follow the life of a recluse. Spiritual education of the Upanishads was so organized as to work perfectly in unison with the demands of the society and the needs of living at that time, so that the student, from the day he had walked out of his teacher’s protection, proved himself to be a fully trained soldier to fight the battle of life  in the society guided by the teachings of the Upanishads.

No study of Upanishads ever started without the guru and the disciple chanting together the peace invocation. Everyday the teacher and the taught sat together and started their discourses only after a common prayer. The term upa-nishad means ‘sit very near’ and comes from the practice of the teacher and the taught sitting together. This indicates the intimate relationship between the preceptor and the disciple. They sit close to each other to hold an intimate dialogue on the most exalted and solemn subject namely, the Supreme Brahman. Because of its content Upanishad is often translated to mean annihilating the ignorance completely. Prayer is a technique by which we tune ourselves to the highest perfection and thereby come to invoke in ourselves a greater perfection of both mind and the intellect. To pray is to be seated with the Lord at his feet. To pray is to aim at the target of God-head with the arrow of intense longing, which has the sharp end of full faith. To pray is again, to receive consolation and inspiration as a disciple at the hands of the teacher. Prayer includes praise, love, adoration and glorification. In our religious prayers we ask our beloved some favor. In Upanishad prayers we leave the choice to him for he knows what is best for us!

Just before the study of the Upanishads, thus each day, the Master and the disciple pray, and thus invoke the best in them to come out, through a complete surrender to the mighty powers of the omniscient God-principle. When the mantras are chanted with intonations, a divine atmosphere is created with holy vibrations all round. The resplendent Self is attainable by the practice of spiritual discipline as truth and continence. The chanting of mantras is a great spiritual discipline.

There are six Shaanti Mantras for the popular Upanishads—Isaavaasya, Svetaavataara, Mundaka, Maandukya, Prasna, Kena, Katha, Taittereya, Aitreya, Naaraayana, Mahaanaaraayana, Brihadaaranyaka, Chandogya, Kaivalya, Kalisantarana, Ganapatyatharvaseersha, Surya and Amrita Bindu--that are chanted both at the beginning and end of the teachings of the Upanishad by both the preceptor and the disciple. Some of these mantras are common to more than one Upanishad, as you see below.  There are many other Shaanti Mantras found in Vedas which are not repeated in Upanishads as Shanti Mantras, like “Asatoe maa sadgamaya” “Tachcham yoeraavrineemahe” etc.

Mantras found in Principal Upanishads are reproduced below in their original in Sanskrit language along with English translation.

Om poornamadaha poornamidam poornaat poornamudachyute |
Poornasya poornamaadaaya poornameva avasishyate ||
|| Om Saantih; saantih; saantih ||

That is whole, this is whole; from the whole, the whole becomes manifest. From the whole when the whole is negated, what remains is again the whole. With particular reference to the Vedic study here this could also mean: That other world is full (with veda). This world is full (with veda). That which fills is more celebrated than the world that is filled. Withdrawing the vyahriti that is the agent of filling from the world (that is pervaded by vyahriti) their remains the Omkaaraatmaka vastu that is full. Om Peace be; Peace be; Peace be. This mantra is also translated by some as follows: That which is beyond is Plenum (full and undiminished). That which appears as this here (that is as the universal) is also Plenum—equally full and undiminished. Out of the Plenum, Plenum arises. Plenum having been taken out of Plenum, what remains is still the same (undiminished) Plenum. Purushasookta implies, what appears as the Universe as Plenum is but a very limited aspect of Purusha, while what remains as un-manifest is unlimited, is incomparably great.

Om bhadram karnebhih  srunuyaama devaaha; bhadram pasyemaakshabhir-yajatraaah | sthirair-angais-tushtuvaagam sas-tanoobhih vyasema devahitam yadaayuh || swasti na indro vriddhasravaah; swasti naha poosha viswavedaah |  swasti nastaarkshyo arishtanemih; swasti noe brihaspatir-dadhaatu | |
 || Om saantih, saantih, saantih ||
(Isavasya, Svetaavataara, Brihadaaranyaka)

O ye Gods, may we hear with our ears (always) what is auspicious; O Worshipful Ones, may we with our eyes see (always) what is auspicious. May we live the entire length of our allotted life hale and hearty, offering our praises (unto Thee). May Indra, the ancient and famous, Sun(Pusan) the all knowing, the Lord of swift motion(Vaayu) who saves us from all harms and Brihaspati who protects the spiritual wealth in us—bless us(with intellectual strength to understand the scriptures and the heroic heart to follow the teachings). Om Peace be; peace be; peace be.
(Prasna, Mundaka, Maandookya, Kaivalya, Soorya, Ganapatyatharvaseersha, Amrita Bindu upanishads)

Om vaang may manasi pratishthitaa; manoe may vaachi pratishthitam; aaviraaveerma edhi; vedasya ma aaneesthah | srutam may maa prahaaseehi | anenaadheetena |  aho raatraan sandadhaami | ritam vadishyaami | satyam vadishyaami | tanmaamavatu | tadvaktaaramavatu |  avatu maam | avatu vaktaaram avatu vaktaaram | |
 || Om  saantih, saantih, saantih||
(Aitreya upanishad)

Om! May my speech be rooted in my mind; may my mind be rooted in my speech; Brahman, reveal Thy self to me. Oh! My mind and speech enable me to grasp the Truth that the Vedas teach. Let not what I have heard forsake me. Let me continuously live my days and nights in my studies. I think Truth. May that (Truth) protect me! May that protect the teacher! Protect me; protect the teacher; protect the teacher. Om! Peace be; peace be; peace be.

Harih Om, sanno mitrah  sam varunah | sanno bhavatvaryamaa |  sanna indro brihaspatih; sanno Vishnu-rurukramah; namo brahmanay |  namaste vaayo; tvameva pratyaksham brahmaaci | tvameva pratyaksham brahma vadishyaami |  ritam vadishyaami  |  satyam vadishyaami | tanmaamavatu | tadvaktaaramavatu | avatu maam | avatu vaktaaram | |
|| Om saantih, saantih, saantih  ||
(Taittireeya Upanishad)

May Mitra and Varuna be blissful to us; May Aryamaa(one of the Aadityas) be blissful to us; May Indra and Brihaspati  be blissful to us; May Vishnu  of vast strides grant us happiness; O Vaayu’ salutation unto you; Thou art verily Brahman immediate; I shall call thee alone as immediate Brahman; I shall call you Ritaa or righteousness. I shall call you Truth. May that Brahman protect the teacher! May it protect me! May it protect the teacher! Om, Peace be; peace be, peace be.

Om Aapyaayantu mamaangaani vaak-praanas-chakshuh   srotram atho balamindriyaani cha sarvaani | sarvam brahmoupanishadam maaham brahma niraa-kuryaam  maa maa brahma niraakarot; aniraakaranam-astu aniraakaranam may astu  yadaatmani nirate ya upanishatsu dharmaah te mayi santu te mayi santu || 
|| Om saantih; saantih; saantih  ||
(Chandogya Upanishad)

 May my limbs, speech, vital air, eyes, ears as well as strength and all sense organs become well developed! Everything is Brahman revealed in the Upanishads. May I not deny Brahman, may not Brahman deny me. Let there be no discarding of Brahman by me.  May there be non-rejection of the Lord for me. In me who is committed to the pursuit of knowledge of Brahman, let there be all those qualities which are mentioned as qualifications in the Upanishads. Let those qualities be in me. Om! Peace be; peace be; peace be.

Om saha naavavatu; saha nau bhunaktu; saha veeryam karavaavahai; tejasvinaavadheetamastu; maa vidvishaa- vahai ||  ||Om! Saantih; saantih; saantih ||
(Katha, Naaraayana, Mahaanaaraayana, Kena, Kalisantarana Upanishads)

May he protect us both together (by revealing knowledge). May He protect us both! May we attain vigor together! Let what we study be invigorating. May we not hate each other!  Om! May there be peace, peace be, peace be!

This prayer seems to be especially imperative in the study of scriptures, where the chances for wasteful and useless arguments are so many that they can lead us into the meshes of ruinous misunderstanding, understanding and non-understanding of the scripture at every step. (Use of this mantra during Shoedasoepachaara pooja is not understandable as in practice in some temples. (Probably its usage is   due to its association with Upanishads like Mahaanaaraayana, Naaraayana and Ganeshaatharvasheersha etc.)

It is more appropriate to chant the Shanti mantra invariably accompanying Purushasooktam than the one above during worship rituals, as it is an appeal to Supreme Brahman though this does not accompany Upanishads normally:

Om tacchamyoraavrineemahay | jnaatum yajnaaya | jnaatum yajnapatayay | daivee svastirastu na-h | svastir maanushebhya-h | oordhvam jigaatu bheshajam | sam no astu dvipaday | sam chatushpaday || Om shaanti-h shaanti-h shaanti-h ||
(Invocation mantra of Purushasooktam)

We pray to God who dispels our sorrows and gives us the fruits of our rituals. We pray to Him to get the results of our rites and rituals as well as for the good of the one who performs the sacrifice.
May we attain the same kind of good that the gods in heaven get! May all the human beings also attain auspiciousness! In future also, let all the evils of life dispel us! May the human beings and the domestic animals under our care (our wealth) remain happy! Peace be1 peace be! Peace be!

Swami Chinmayananda has the following to say about these Shanti Paathas: “The great masters of the Upanishads knew no desire for the sense-world which they had enquired into and discovered to be hollow and riddled with carping sorrows. They prayed only for the cultural evolution of the entire kingdom of beings. This national character of Vedic period is stamped so faithfully in the words of the Shanti stanza in each of the Upanishads. Both the master and disciple sincerely wished and prayed that they should, during their spiritual life, see and hear nothing but auspiciousness. The sense organs—the eyes, and ears are the great-trunk-roads through which Satan enters the realm of God, within man. The other sense objects do not so directly pave a way to the mental suicide in man. Both the outer scenes of viciousness and the inner murmurs of foul intentions directly sweep us in front of them and then defile the edifice of spiritualism in our bosom; hence the great prayer of the Vedic seers that they should hear and see nothing but goodness and purity.

In the peace invocation, the thing desired or invoked is not something to satisfy the physical comforts or the mental desires of the student. The student is not begging anything at the feet of the Lord as we often do while offering prayers. All that he demands of Cosmic Powers, whom he is invoking, is that no obstacles shall come during the study of the Saastras from his master.

Their invocation to Indra, Vaayu, Soorya etc make us remember that Rama, Krishna- Gods are the products of a much later stage. They were deities that were sanctioned in the puraanic times. In the vedic period, the Masters knew only the five great Elements and such other manifestations to be the Divine personalities—the Devatas. They are invoked here both by the Guru and the disciple.

If each one, in a society or a community, is to ardently and sincerely pray so as to meet with only auspiciousness and act for the same, in such a country at such an era of culture, jails will be redundant, slum areas will be unknown, poverty unimaginable, disease a mere exception. From the state of affairs available today, we may despair and fail even to visualize that such perfect spiritual communism would be ever possible in the world, but this seems to be the pattern aimed at by the rishis of old and their prayers clearly indicate to what perfection they brought their vision, in their own times as facts realized”.

No peace invocation concludes without thrice repeating or invoking Saanti. The three repetitions are-- it is explained by Aachaaryas like Sankara, Raamaanuja, Madhwa--addressed to the three groups in which all the probable obstacles in the study of the scripture can be classified. They are: Aadhidaivikam (cosmic disturbances); Aadhi-bhoutikam (environmental disturbances); Aadhyaatmikam (inner disturbances). The first type of disturbance is from the phenomenal powers like lightning, thunder, rain, earthquake etc. Hence the first saanti is chanted loudly. The second type is the environmental disturbance like noise around, animals prowling, insects crawling etc. The second chant is softer than the first to indicate that it is directed to the environmental disturbances. The third type is disturbance springing from one’s own body like sickness, worry etc. The last chant is therefore in whispers directed to the inner disturbances.

The invocation is thus rounded up with a thrice repeated ‘call for peace’. This is to avert all possible obstacles. Obstacles are many and to exhaust all possibilities by name is impossible. But all obstacles can be classified under the three heads with reference to the source from which they arise. Thus, the sources can be: a) unseen b) seen and unknown c) subjective, within us in our own mind. In order to avert all obstacles arising from the above three types of causes, we have the thrice repeated peace call. It is believed that which is said thrice comes true. In the court of Law, one who takes witness stand says, ‘I shall speak the truth, the whole truth and nothing but truth, repeating the word ‘truth’ three times.

There is a difference in the tense of verbs used in the closing peace invocation. While in the opening passage the invocation expressed a humble submission to the Supreme, here at the end it is the joy cry of the devotee who feels the recipient of the grace. There if it was a cry to be blessed, here it is the joy of satisfaction at having been blessed.

In short, the student feels that the study all through the chapter has been fruitful and in this invocation he is expressing his gratitude for the blessings received from the Cosmic Powers, whom he had invoked in the beginning of the lessons.

It is customary to chant Shanti mantras from Upanishads at the conclusion of Shoedasoepachara Pooja (16 steps worship to the Lord) conducted in all temples and homes as Mantra Pushpas. Besides, a number of Vedic Mantras are employed as invocation or concluding prayers like Shanti Mantras found in individual Upanishads by learned priests and Vedic scholars. Some of them that are popular are quoted below.  

Asatoe maa sad gamaya | tamasoe maa jyoetirgamaya | Mrityoer maa amritham gamaya || Om Saantih! Saantih! Saantih!

Lead me from the Unreal to the Real! Lead me from Darkness to Light! Lead me from Death to Immortality! In the name of the Supreme Principle, may there be peace, peace, peace all around!

Charanam pavitram vitatam puraanam yena pootastarati dushkritaani | Tena pavitrena suddhaena pootaa ati paapmaanam-araatim taraema || (MNU)

He who is rendered holy by the ancient, widespread, sanctifying feet crosses over evil deeds and their effects. Having been rendered holy by that naturally pure and sanctifying feet of the Lord may we overcome our sins, our enemies!

Vidhartaaram havaamahae vasoeh kuvidvaanaati nah | savitaaram
nri-chakshasam || (MNU)

We invoke the creator of the universe who sustains the creation in many ways and who witnesses the thoughts and deeds of men. May He grant us plenty of excellent and all round wealth!

Viswaani deva savitar-duritaani paraasuva | yad bhadra, tanma Aasuva || (Rigveda V-82-5)

Oh Resplendent Savitar, the Creator, Please ward off all the sins from me! Please bring to me that which is beneficial (for I do not know what is beneficial) for me)!

Arjuna prays to Lord Krishna in Bhagavadgeeta “yaschreyassyaan-nischityam broohitanme” with the same concept in the following verse:

Kwaahamatyanta durbuddih kwach-aatmahita-veekshanam |
Yad-hitam mama daevaesa tad-aajnaapaya Maadhva ||                                      

Madhuvaataa ritaayatae madhuksharanti sindhavah | maadhveer-nah santvoeshadheeh || Madhu naktamutoeshasi madhumat-paarthiva(ga)m rajah | Madhudyaurastu nah pitaa || Madhumaaannoe vanaspatir-madhumaa(ga)m astu sooryah | maadhveergaavoe bhavantu nah || (MNU)

May the wind blow sweetly to me--the devotee of the Supreme Truth! May the rivers flow sweetly! May the herbs be sweet and beneficial to us! May there be sweetness day and night! May the constituents of the earth be sweet bearing! May heaven, our father, be sweet to us! May the sun be beneficial and sweet to us! May the cows give us sweet milk!

Mayi medhaam mayi prajaam mayyagnih tejoe dadhaatu |
Mayi medhaam  mayi prajaam mayeendra indriyam dadhaatu |
Mayi medhaam mayi prajaam mayi sooryoe bhraajoe dadhaatu ||
May Agni (Fire) render me intelligence, continuity of progeny and splendor born of the study of Vedas! May Indra (Divine King) render me intelligence, continuity of progeny and virility! May Soorya (Sun) render me intelligence, continuity of progeny and prowess that strikes fear in the heart of enemies!

Dyauh saantih antariksha(ga)m saantih prithivee saantih aapah saantih oeshadhayah saantih | vanaspatayah saantih viswedevaah saantih brahma saantih sarva(ga)m saantih saantireva saantih saa maa saantiraedhi ||

There is peace in the heavenly region; there is peace in the atmosphere; peace reigns on the earth;, there is coolness in the water; the medicinal herbs are healing; the plants are peace-giving; there is harmony in the celestial objects and perfection in eternal knowledge; everything in the universe is peaceful; peace pervade everywhere. May that peace come to me!

Om yaam medhaam deva-ganah pitaraschoepaasatae | tayaa maamadya medhayaa-agnae medhaavinam kuru || (MNU)

Oh Radiant, All-knowing God! Grant me that superior wisdom which the enlightened and the protectors possess. O God! Listen and answer my sincere prayers!

Tryambakam yajaamahay sugandhim pushtivardhanam |
Urvaarukamiva bandhanaan-mrityor-muksheeya maamritaat ||
(Rigveda VII-59-120)

We sing Thy (Supreme Principle) praise as responsible for Creation, Preservation and Destruction (Brahmaa, Vishnu and Siva) and as primordial Energies in the form of knowledge, Wealth and Happiness (Sarasvati, Lakshmi and Gowri). We are praying for the life rejuvenating
Nectar(Elixer), to get out of death inflicting deadly diseases as well as the cycle of birth and death. [This is a mantra from Rigveda. The above is the universal meaning as sectarian Siva worship was not yet known during the Rigvedic period, which directs the prayer to three eyed Siva, as explained in my detailed discourse on the subject.]

Aaa noe bhadraah kratavoe yantu visvatoe adabdhaasoe apareetaasa udbhidah | devaanoe yathaa sadmidvridhe asana praayavoe rakshitaaroe divay divay || (Rigveda 1-89-1)

All the divine gods arebent on our all-round progress; Everyday they protect us and nourish us sparing no time. In the same manner may pleasant tidings come near us from all corners, with no hindrance from others, with no disturbance and always with success!

Daevaanaam bhadraa sumatir-yajooyataam devaanaam raatir-abhinoe nivartataam | Daevaanaam sakhyam-upasaedimaa vayam Daevaa na aayuh pratirantu jeevasay || (Rigveda I-89-2)

May the blessed mind of the Devas shower on the Righteous! May the charitable disposition of the Devas turn especially towards us! May we gain the friendship of the divines! May that Devas bless us with long life for such a noble living!

Bhadram Karnaebhih srinuyaam daevaah bhadram pasyaema-akshabhir-yajatraah || sthirair-angais-tushtuvaamsas-tanoobhir-vyasaema daevahitam yadaayuh || (Rigveda 1-8-98)

Oh Gods endowed with charitable disposition!  May we   be able to hear
 through our ears,  your gospels! Oh Gods, You are the very embodiment of Sacrifices (yajna); may we see those auspicious things with our eyes!
May we live our full life singing your glory with strong limbs and body!

Aapoe hishthaa mayoebhuvahstaa na oorjae dadhaatana | mahaeranaaya chakshasey | yoe vah sivatamoe rasas-tasya bhaajayatae-ahanah | usateeriva maatarah | tasmaa aram gamaama voe yasya kshayaaya jinvatha |aapoe janayathaa cha nah (MNU)

Oh waters! Verily, you are bliss-conferring. Being such, grant us food, and great and beautiful insight of the Supreme Truth. Further make us in these very life participators of that joy of yours which is most auspicious, just like beloved mothers. May we reach that satisfactory abode of yours which you are pleased to grant us ! Please generate us also the waters of life and pleasure on earth during our life time!

Pasyema saradassatam | jeevema saradassatam | nandaama saradassatam | moedaama saradassatam | bhavaama saradassatam srinavaama saradssatam | prabravaama sarads-satam | ajeetaasyaama saradssatam | jyoekcha-sooryam drise || ya udagaan-mahatoe-arnavaat-vibhraajamaanah sarirasya-madhyaat samaa vrishabhoe loehitaakshah sooryoe vipaschin manasaa  punaatu ||   (MNU)

Let us live looking at Soorya for hundred years, let us live for hundred years, let us rejoice for hundred years let us enjoy for hundred years let us hear for hundred years!  May Lord Soorya glowing like a fireball purify our mind!

Agnim manyae pitaram-agnim bhraataram padamit-sakhaayam |
 Agnaeraneekam brihatah saparyam divi sukram yajatam sooryasya || (Rigveda X-7-3)

Lord Agni is my father.  I also take him to my brother.  I take him as an intimate friend too. Just as I worship the glowing radiance of the Sun in the divine world I worship the manifestation of Agni in his form of  Aahavaneeya (form of sacrificial fire). 

The above Mantra of Rigveda has inspired the devotees to chant the following popular devotional hymn at the conclusion of daily worship:

Tvamaeva maataa cha pitaa tmamaeva tvamaeva bhanduscha gurustvamaeva | Tvamaeva vidyaa dravinam tvamaeva tvamaeva sarvam mama daevadaeva ||

It is also customary to invoke peace three times with the above mantras from Vedas as in Shanti Paathas of Upanishads.

“Tadvishnoeh paramam padam sadaa pasyanti soorayaha; diveeva chakshuraatatam tad vipraasoe, vipanyavoe; jagrivaagam sasyamindhatae tad vishnoeryat paramam padam || Paryaaptaa anantaraayaaya sarvasstoem-eti  raatra-muttamma ahar-bhavati sarvasyaaptyai sarvasya jityai sarvameva tenaapnoeti sarvam jayati ||”

The learned are looking at the abode of Vishnu (paramapadam) just like looking at the Sun that pervades the sky. The learned sages reach the abode of Vishnu cautiously without much difficulty.   May I be blessed with good things day and night! I pray to the All Pervading to attain everything, to conquer everything and to possess everything.

It is also customary to chant the first Mantras of four Vedas as prayer mantras. These can be found with full meaning in my discourse “The Vedic Hymn that Hypnotized the World Gathering—Inaugural Recording for HMV” on the Blog Hindu Reflections.


1.     Swami Chinmayananda, Taittireeya Upanishad, Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, Mumbai
2.     Swami Devarupananda, Mantra Pushpam, Ramakrishna Mutt, Khar, Mumbai
3.     Parthasarathy A,The Symbolism of Hindu Gods and Rituals, Vedanta Life Institute, Mumbai.
4.     Dr. N.S. Anantha Rangacharya, Principal Upanishads, vol. 1 & 2,  Bangalore
5.     Swami Vimalananda, Mahaanaaraayana Upanishad, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai, India.
6.     Girish C. khosla, Havan Mantra, Arya Samaj, Michigan, USA
7.      Anantarangachar, Rigvedaratna Sampta (Kannada),  DVK Moorti
      Publishers, Mysore, India. (Translation by N.R Srinivasan)


Swami Chidananda on Immortality

असतो मा सद् गमय | तमसो मा ज्योतिर् गमय | मृत्योर् मा अमृतं गमय ||

(Brihadāranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28)

When do not see the rope in dim light, our mind projects a snake.
Be quiet. Do not project imaginary stuff. The snake disappears.
There is no snake. That is truth.

When we gain total clarity, we realize the supreme bliss is inside us.
Be still. Discover the completeness within.
Happiness is you. That is God.

| asato maa sad-gamaya = Be quiet. Leave the false. Stay with truth.
| tamaso maa jyotir-gamaya =
Be still. Total attention is jyotih, light.
| mrityor maaamritam gamaya = The above two will bring you to God.


Translated by P.R.Ramachndran

Swasthi prajabhya paripalayantham,
Nyayena margena maheem maheesa,
Gobrahmanebhyo shubhamasthu nithyam,
Loka samastha Sukhino bhavantu.

Let good things occur to the king of the country,
Who looks after his people well, in the path of justice,
Let Cows* and Brahmins** have a pleasant life daily,
Let all people of the world have a very pleasant life.
        *wealth was measured by cows in those times
        ** People in search of God

Kale varshathu parjanya,
Prauthwee sasya shalini,
Deso yam kshobha rahitha,
SAjjana santhu nirbhaya.

Let the monsoon be timely and plentiful,
Let  earth  be covered with vegetation,
Let the country live without problems,
And let good people never have fear.

Aputhra puthrina santhu,
Puthrina santhu pouthrina,
Adhana sadhana,
Santhu jeevanthu sarada satham.

Let sonless people have son,
Let people with son have grand sons,
And let people who are poor or rich,
Live and see one hundred autumns.

Sarvathra sukhina santhu,
Sarve santhu niramaya,
Sarve bhadrani pasyanthu,
Ma kaschid dukha bhag bhaveth.

Let people live with pleasure everywhere,
Let all people live without diseases,
Let every one feel themselves secure,
And let none have at anytime sorrow,

Om Sarvesham swasthir bhavthu,
Om Sarvesham santhir Bhavathu,
Om Sarvesham poornam Bhavathu,
Om Sarvesham Mangalam Bhavathu.

Let comfort be every where,
Let peace be everywhere,
Let there be plenty everywhere,
And let good things happen everywhere.

Om Santhi, Om Santhi, Om Santhi

Let there be peace,
Let there be peace,
Let there be peace.