Thursday, March 17, 2016

ANCIENT VAIVASVATA YOGASASTRA AVAILABLE TO US AS BHAGAVAD GITA



Ancient  Vaivasvata Yogasastra  Available  to Us  as  Bhagavadgita 
(Compilation for a discourse by N.R. Srinivasan, April 2016)
Bhagavad Geeta is available to us today as The Song of the Celestial sung in the battlefield of   Kurukshetra, just before the commencement  of  Mahabharata War mostly by Lord Krishna in Sloka meter  in 700 songs which could have been a Yogopanishad of 300 essential Mantras as researched by Kalpataru Research Academy of Sringeri Sankar Math, Sarada Peetham. Do you like to just chant it  like many mantras in reverence and blind belief  or deeply study it—Choice is yours. Each chapter concludes saying it is the Upanishad which has been discussed between the Guru Lord Krishna and the most deserving and knowledgeable disciple Arjuna (iti srimad-bhagavdgeetaasoopanishatsu brahmavidyaayaam Yogasaastre…….krishnarjuna- samvaade…..Yogonaama….Adhyaayaah).  Dhritarashta had the benefit of hearing it through Sanjaya who was blessed with divine remote vision and hearing by Vedavyasa who is none other than  an earlier Avatar of Vishnu like Krishna.  I do not know whether similar  ending is also found in Mahabharata text or not and only introduced in Gita by the various authors, but all authors follow the same pattern some referring it as Yogasastra and others not. All Upanishads are discussions between the Guru and disciples and the mantras are poetic mostly and not prosaic. Bhagavad Gita also follows the same pattern. It is also clear that these are not   battlefield emergency songs but was just a repetition of what existed before at the beginning of the Manvantara. It would then be more appropriate to call this as  Vaivasvata Manvantropanishad or Vaivasvata Yogasastra Bodha or Yogatattva Bodha   as delivered in the  beginning of the Kalpa by Brahma Vaivasvata receiving from  Bhagawan or Deva or Brahman. Sankara has also written Atmabodha and Tattvabodha like Upanishad mantras.
There are innumerable interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gita in the market that confuse us.  It is confusing to identify which one is bona-fide and which one is mala-fide! Our Puranas have made it a battle-field instant scripture preached by Lord Krishna and heard by Arjuna who in the end got enlightened and was ready to fight a Holy War of Dharma in which Lord Krishna the eighth Avatar of Vishnu was a non-participant Motivator. So we celebrate Gita Day as Gita Parayana Day (A day for holy reading).  I do not know why it is titled as Song of the Celestial?  Battle-field is not   a place for singing songs? Bhaktivedanta people and Krishna Consciousness followers inspired by Swami Chaitnaya, Jayadeva, Prabhupada and others do not think Krishna as eighth Avatar but  Krishna alone  who has manifested in several Avatars.  Balarama and historic Buddha are included in their list of Dasvatara while Krishna is excluded (please refer to Jayadeva’s Dasvatara Stotra).  Krishna’s name is also associated with Varaha Avatar (Varahena  Krishnena satabahuna) like Matsya-Narayana, Varaha-Narasimha!

 In Gita Bhagawan mesmerized and hypnotized Arjuna by the Cosmic Form of Virat Purusha described in the Viswrupa Darsana Yoga, Chapter XI ingeniously introduced by the author Vedavyasa like the introductory Chapter I--The Dependency of Arjuna, to the ancient text which he compiled and called it a Book of Songs. I wonder why he used the name Bhagavan in all the Chapters and not popular Krishna’s name which is rarely heard in Gita!   Thereafter Arjuna completely surrendered and was a ready to follow whatever Bhagawan said without further questioning. In fact Krishna disclosed his identity much earlier as God-Incarnate in Chapter IV.  Vedavysa also starts Gita with the introduction “dharmakshetre kurukshtre samavetaa yuyutsavah” stating that Pandavas and Kauravas gathered in the Field of Action (Kurukshetra) to fight for the preservation of Dharma and turn Kurukshetra to Dharma Kshetra, Land of Righteousness. Kurukshetra may be spiritually significant and may not be historic Kurukshetra near Delhi if Krishna is not a historric figure like Buddha in their Avatars! Bhagavad Gita has also been projected by Vedavyasa as a Holy Scripture indicated by the title-- Song of the Bhagawan, like Ramayana and Bhagavata Purana which gives it the status of most celebrated Hindu Scripture popular with World religious followers.
“Within the context of the Mahabharata, and especially the battle of Kurukshetra, the existence of the Bhagvad Gita clearly calls for a willing suspension of disbelief. There is no other way in which one can accept the fact that the two sides waited to begin a War while eighteen chapters were recited, explained and discussed (Krishnarjuna Samvada)” says Vrinda Nabar in her edition of Bhagavad Gita.
Does Virat Purusha has time to sing 700 songs in the Battlefield and can He be   Bhajan singer like Purandara Dasa?  The title suggests   Bhagwan (Narayana) composed the core philosophical   songs in the battle field and sang to enlighten and cheer up his disillusioned and dejected companion Arjuna (Nara) to rise to the occasion and act. There are some songs by Arjuna as prayers and a few by Sanjaya who was repeating the songs sung by both of them to blind Dhritarastra at a remote place, and a some by Dhritarashtra  by way of questions and curiosity and bewilderment.   The main singer is described as Bhagawan who is none other than the Viratpurusha who revealed his Viswaroopam. In the 18th chapter Sanjaya sings his concluding song: Vyaasaprasaadaat-chchyutavaanetad-guhya maham param | Yogam  yogesvaraat Krishnaat saakshaat  kathayathah svayam ||  Through the grace of Vedavyasa I have heard this supreme and secret Yoga from Sri Krishna, the Lord of  Yoga, as He delivered it to Arjuna linking Bhagawan to Krishna.  It is interesting to note only here as in the first chapter Krishna’s name is mentioned.   Sanjaya used several popular names of Lord Krishna also in the first Chapter which are found in VSN.  In rest of the Chapters we find Bhagawan always addressing Arjuna. Here Vyasaprasada may mean the composition of Vedavyasa and of the Main singer Bhagawan.
In order to make his composition popular and famous as sung by Bhagawan, Vedavyasa might have introduced Krishna and the war teams in the first chapter. He also made these songs   being heard by the blind King Dhritarashtra as narrated by Sanjaya who could witness the telecasted battle field event by the special power provided by him to Sanjaya to acquire Divine vision. It was a live battle scene presentation. They had no telescopes in those days but they could have divine Vision to see events happening beyond human reach and also Divine memory to store all that they heard and reproduce.
Usually it is the devotee or the disciple who sings the song in praise of the Lord. It is the other- way round here. The whole scene looks like a movie. The movie is based on the epic Mahabharata. It is Sage Veda Vyasa who is the director and compiler and editor of the ancient text presenting it as songs in sloka meter.  Lord Krishna sung this song to Arjuna. The song is    Varaprasada (boon) to the entire human race.  700 songs are available to us  to-day  in the  book called Bhagavad Gita, inserted later into Mahabharata which is considered as a holy book of Hindus, like Vishnu  Sahasranama  which we chant today, like Ramayana. Only 300 Slokas are exclusive and contain the total Yoga philosophy. Restare only descriptive and repetitive, characteristic of   devotional songs. But VSN contained in Mahabharata is the conventional song from a devotee (Bhishma) to the Lord (Krishna). Why then people often give a parrot reading to Bhagavad Gita when they cannot understand the Sanskrit verses in it or deep philosophy contained in it?  Out of reverence to Lord Krishna, the eighth Incarnation of Vishnu they get a mental satisfaction that they are cleansed and purified, inside and out. The effects are immediate and enormous like chanting OM and psychological. They are freed from fears and gain an unseen moral boost in their confidence levels because of their implicit faith called Sraddha (sraddhavan labhate Jnaanam). Bhagavad Gita is chanted even in the Cremation grounds for its healing power.  
Krishna gave a long sermon of 1000 verses to Uddhava his disciple at a later date. As a Yoga Teacher he resorted to such lengthy discourses.  Uddhava says in it: “Oh Lord Krishna. I think the pursuit of God as you narrated to Arjuna, and now to me is very difficult indeed, for most people; because it entails control of unruly sense. Please tell me in short, simple and easy way to God-realization”. This implies Avatar Krishna and Deva, God are two different entities.    Lord Krishna upon Uddhava’s request gave the essentials of Self-realization as follows:
·                               Do your duty, to the best of your ability, without worrying about outcome. Remember God at all times.
·                         Perceive the God is within every living being. Mentally bow down to all beings and treat all beings equally.
·                            Perceive through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions that the Power of God is within you at all times, and is constantly doing all the work using you as a mere instrument and a trustee.
This was   the advice  typical of   a Yoga-Master and Guru.
 In order to make a distinction between the two classes of bona fide and mala fide interpretations, we have to make an impartial study of the Gita itself and such unbiased study only will make us able to discern the bona fide from the mala fide without any speculation.  Before that it is worth going through the elaborate research work done by the research wing, Kalpataru Research Academy of Shankar Mutt of Bangalore, a division of Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham.
Dr. S.K. Ramachandra Rao has the following to say in his Introduction to Gita Kosha Trisati.  This work is an   attempt  to condense the Bhagavad Gita of 18 Chapters and 700 slokas into a tract of 300 slokas (Trisati) comprising of the most essential teachings of the great scriptural text, avoiding repetitions and material that does not relate to these   teachings and establishing a continuity of slokas into topic. Hindus are accustomed to hear holy Ramayaana and others as Kalakshepam from learned Pundits who often exaggerate and extend the text to drive home the essentials. For example Ramayana has several slokas describing vasanta rutu and rama’s pangs of love and grief of separation.  Bhagavad Gita which was once a Yogopanishad that   draws its strength from other Upanishads was compiled and brought into sloka form by Vedavyasa, making Bhagawan the spokesman from whom Lord Krishna emanated as an Avatar of Vishnu who at  the same time  was also   a historic figure like Bhagawan Buddha whose history is well established. His attempt to make it the Songs of the Celestial did not go in vain seeing the reverence  it commands among  Hindus today  and the popularity it enjoys as a Philosophical  Tattva (Treatise) combining the wisdom contained in various Upanishads combining  with Sankhya Philosophy which  showed atheistic tendencies in its philosophic outlook.  Dr. Ramachndra Rao has the following to say in his introduction:
“The Bhagavagita is doubtless a text, perhaps the earliest, belonging to the devotional school of Indian origin, the Bhagavata. This monotheistic school was founded by Krishna Vasudeva, belonging to the Sarasvati sect of the  Yadu class; and he was revelry referred to as Bhagawan (the Lord). The Gita unmistakably bears the influence of Upanishads, especially the Katha and the Svetasvatara (please refer to my detailed discourse on the subject). There is even   suggestion that the Celestial Song was originally a Yoga Upanishad which was later Vaishnavized.  Krishna, the founder of the Vaishnava tradition (Sampradaya) who is the spokesman in the Gita was by birth a Sudra (being Yadu) who was later raised to the rank of a Kshatriya.
There is in Chandogya Upanishad, a reference to Krishna Devakiputra (son of Devaki) who was a   disciple of the sage Ghora-Angirasa. The Jain Harivamsa mentions Krishna as the cousin of the celebrated ford-maker, Neminatha (who is believed to have lived about eight centuries earlier   than Christ). The famous Indian Battle which was fought on the Kurukshetra grounds is dated about eighth or ninth century BCE.
In the Bhagavadgita, Krishna is mostly represented as a teacher of great wisdom and erudition; he figures as a Yogi. The Bhagavata records that Krishna sat up every morning for meditation ‘merging himself with the transcendental self’.   We read also that Krishna in all probability was historical in character, and was a philosopher who harmonized Sankhya Yoga with the Brahmavada of Upanishads.”
Orthodox Hindus do accept that Bhagavadgita is a compendium of all Upanishads and not an instant production as Book of the Battlefield in their own devotional style in the Dhyanasloka:
Sarvopanishado gaavo  doghdaa gopaalanandanah |
Partho vatsah sudheerbhoktaa dugdham geetaamritam mahat  ||
All Upanishads are the cows, the son of cowherd Nanda is the one who milks,    Paartha (Arjuna) is the calf, men of purified intellect are the drinkers and the Supreme Nectar Gita is the Milk.
I recently received an interesting and thought provoking dispatch by IndiaDivine.Org titled Interpretations of Bhagavad Gita by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, originally published circa 1948   for further propagation to spread the message of Bhakti Vedanta. The relevant portion for the context is reproduced below.
“In this connection, we may first of all try to find out the origin of the Bhagavad-Gita. It is wrong to understand that The Bhagavad-gita was first spoken in the battlefield of Kuruksetra as it is a part of the great history of India, namely, the Mahabharata. We can understand from the talks of Sri Krishna and Arjuna, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-Gita, that long, long before the battle of Kurukshetra, this philosophy was once spoken by   Krishna to Vivasvan (the Sun), and from Vivasvan the knowledge was transferred to Manu, and from Manu it was transferred to King Ikshvaaku. And, in that way of disciple succession, the knowledge has come down to generations after generations, but in course of time, such disciple succession broke, and therefore, Sri Krishna again repeated the same Yoga or transcendental knowledge to Arjuna”.  In the beginning of the 4th Chapter of Bhagavad-Gita, this fact is stated as follows:
[Reference to Krishna earlier to Krishna Avatar by Bhaktivedanta may not appeal to others as convincing. The word Krishna as addressed to Supreme existed long before Dvapara Yuga. So also the name of Rama existed.   Both refer to the Supreme  to mean one who delights.  An ancient MNU mantra reads “Varahena Krishnena Satabauna”  referring to Varaha Krishna of hundred arms. In that context reference to Krishna earlier than Dvapara as Parabrahman seems to be logical. Bhaktivedanta is strongly devoted  and  emphatic that  Lord Krishna is not an Avatar and Parbrahman.  I wonder why they celebrate his Birthday and  Raskreeda with  all fan-fare treating  as  common human being?]
Sri- Bhagawan uvacha:
Imam vivasvate yogam  Proktavaanahmavyaam |
vivasvaan manave praaha manur iksvakave abraveet ||
The blessed Lords said: This eternal Yoga I taught to Viwasvat; Viwaswat taught it to Manu   and Manu taught it to Ikshwaku.
Evam paramparaa-praaptam imam raajarshayo viduh |
sa kaleneha mahata yogo nahtah parantapa ||
This Yoga, thus traditionally handed down, the royal sages knew. Over the great lapse of time this Yoga is lost in this world, O scorcher of foes!
Sa evaayam mayaa te adya yogah proktah puraatanah |
bhakto asi me sakhaa cheti rahasyam hy etad uttamam ||
That very ancient Yoga has been taught by Me to you this day, since you are my devotee and friend; for this is supreme secret.”
This confirms Bhagavadgita started as Yogopanishad or Yogatattvabodha in ancient times and was taught first to   Vaiwaswata Manu by the Lord himself (God-head or Brahman to Brahma) that  he  was just repeating to  Arjuna. Also please note   that each Manu at the beginning of the Kalpa holds the official posting as Brahma whose life-span is one hundred Brahma Years as we learn from our Sankalpa. We are under the rule of Vaiwasvata (Manvantara means rule of) at present in the second half of Brahma’s Years (dwiteeya praraarde), in the Svetavarahaa Kalpa and Kaliyuga first quarter. It also clarifies how we have to maintain Guru-disciple relationship to spread the  sacred knowledge, imparted by a Guru to a deserving and receptive disciple as secret knowledge as   often emphasized  in Upanishads.   It also confirms Bhagavad Gita is the Upanishad belonging to this Vaiwasvata Manvantara at its beginning  and not a Battle-field book belonging to the end of Dwaparayuga when Mahbharata War was fought. Also it confirms in Vedic days the Society was ruled by Raja Rishis, sages who were benevolent rulers to whom people went to redress their grievances and also to take care of their welfare. There were no present day type rulers then but only Gotra Patis as Raja rishis who were respected and sought after.  Gita the sacred knowledge of earlier days   was delivered by Bhagawan (Narayana) to knowledgeable Arjuna (Nara) in the traditional method of Guru-sishya Sampradaya and not to the battle-field warriors. I wonder whether even Dharmaraja heard these songs then like VSN which he heard in the company of his four brothers standing and listening with reverence in rapt attention! The other blessed recipients were Dhritarashtra and Sanjaya.
The wisdom tradition (jnana path) of the rishis holds the view that there is only One Supreme God, termed as Brahman. The Upanishadic rishis   have said that the way of realizing God is to approach a Teacher (Guru), who has realized God. This is the meaning of  the word Upanishad. We are all familiar with the Mantra Sahanavavatu and its meaning often employed in 16-Step worship of the Lord.  This wisdom tradition was based on the concept of Manu and Manvantara (cosmic age cycles). It is said that Manu is the originator, the progenitor of the human race. That is why cosmic age is calculated in terms of Manvantara after the name of Manu. A solar system and all life forms in it are born out of the Sankalpam of Manu alias Brahma. However, the Manu origin of the universe was forgotten owing to certain spiritual neglect and in its place Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara, Goddess, etc. were projected by Puranas as the creator, sustenance and Dissolution Gods and the Gods followed  by different sects according to their tastes. Actually, Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara (Siva) were great devata gurus of earlier yuga cycles mentioned as sages of the Veda Mantras. Through the mythological stories, they were elevated as Gods to serve the interests of priests, who wanted to establish the temple tradition and worship of deities in order to promote their spiritual and social supremacy, whereas, in the wisdom path of the rishis related to Manu tradition, it is the enlightened Guru, who appears at every Yuga intervals and who is the spiritual authority who provides spiritual guidance to humanity. To-day the chief priest in important rituals like Yajna is honored as Brahma and is presumed to occupy Brahmasthaana similar to Garbagriha in Temples. The ancient system of spiritual guidance by the preceptors (Gurus) was replaced by the Vaidika-tradition in the temple tradition, in order to promote their community interest. Therefore, the system of worshiping   Devas and Devis was introduced by Vaidikas who occupied prestigious position of Brahma (Brahmastana) in rituals and worships. And by worshiping Vedic Devatas and Puranic styled Devas Devis, the soul of worshiper does not reach the Supreme Light of God. Such souls who worship the Devi-Devas become the food of these celestial beings. After enjoying heaven for a short period they are reborn again, without attaining Mukti. Puranas speak of Sivaloka, Visnuloka etc. These are only Suvar or Swargaloka mentioned in Vedas and are temporary enjoyment stations. Those who worship Siva go to Sivaloka after earning eligibility to exhaust their Punyas. Similarly worshipers of Vishnu go to Vishnuloka and return back.  They return to earth only to attain the status of Gunaateeta and then join Brahman in Brahmaloka or Paramapada--Brahmalokam gamishyate; Tadvishnoh Paramam Padam. This has been mentioned by Sri Krishna in the Bhagavat Gita (Refer the verse ‘Devavritaan devaan yaanti, pitru vritaan pitruun yaanti, bhuta vritaan bhutaan yaanti…)--Those who worship Gods go to Gods and those who worship Me (Universal Person who revealed Viswaroopa in Bhagawad Gita) come to Me alone! The great rishis and great spiritual masters like Sri Krishna have advised the worship of natural deities for God realization. In fact Sri Krishna tried to stop the worship of deities like Indra and advised the wisdom path for God realization. You may recall how he started   Govardhana Puja which we all celebrate during Diwali Festival Season stopping the customary Indra Puja. We celebrate Govardhana Puja during Diwali. Looking upon hills as and mountains as Gods was an old faith. It was   current among many ancient nations, besides India. There were Gods which were Mountains among the Japanese (Kami), Persians (Al- bruz), Greeks (Olympus), Celtics (Poininus), Babylonians (Enlin), Koreans and Semities.
Creation started with two heavenly luminary bodies, Sun and the Moon. That is why we hear of only two races the Solar race and the Lunar race that existed.  In Solar Dynasty the knowledge of Integral discipline was passed on to Manu from the Sun and from Manu to Ikshavaku the ancestor of Solar Dynasty. Lord Rama belongs to Solar Dynasty down the line from King Sagara, Anshuman, Dalep, Bhagiratha, Raghu, Aaja, and Dasaratha. The kings in Solar Dynasty were not only Rulers but also Rishis. They all knew about this Yogopanishad which Bhagawan taught to Arjuna. The integral wisdom of Yoga, which has free access to the entire mankind is perceived and practiced by only by a few because not everybody is able to perceive its magnificence. The wisdom of Yoga remains unexplored, because of the personal ignorance of the individual; and when the majority of the society ignores the need for inner wisdom; it becomes distant for a while. We should not confuse this Yoga Knowledge with the Yoga exercises and breathing exercise we do for physical fitness. We do not practice Pranayama but only Nasikayama.
“Rishis and kings or the kings who were as good as the rishis is the meaning of the word Rajarishayah, and, as such, every one, whether he was a householder or mendicant, knew Bhagavad-Gita before the battle of Kurukshetra, or before the period of Mahabharata, which is calculated to be at least five thousand years before, and as such, how it is hinted that the same knowledge was lost. That transcendental knowledge was lost because there must have been some mala fide interpretations of the knowledge, and such knowledge would do more harm than good to the people. It had to be repeated again by Sri Krishna before a bona fide king, and for this, Arjuna was selected at a critical moment because Sri Krishna acknowledged him to be not only a confidential friend, but also a bona-fide devotee at the same time. We have to mark the words especially bhakto asi’ etc.” says Swami Prabhupada
Sa Evaayam mayaa te adya yogah proktaa puraatanam|bhakto asi me sakhaa cheti rahasyam hy etad uttamam
That very ancient Yoga (sung in Gita) has been taught by Me to you this day, since you are my devotee and friend. ; for this is a supreme secret.
Sri Krishna had many friends and relatives at that time who might have been great scholars also like Satyaki but He selected Arjuna as the bona fide person to grasp the knowledge of Bhagavad-Gita only because Arjuna was the greatest devotee of the Lord.  Bhagawan also says in Bhagavad Gita that Arjuna as Nara and He as Narayana have spent together several  thousand years and later also in subsequent births, binging home the fact how their lives are tied together—“Bahooni ma vyateetaani janmani tava chaarjuna”. He also says he knows them all, but Arjuna does not know them.  Bhagavad Gita can be understood only by personalities like Arjuna, who was a completely dedicated to   Sri Krishna, and this knowledge (Yoga) can be explained only by Gurus like Sri Krishna to his bona fide devotees meaning by a Devata   like him only.
“Under such circumstances, the bona fide interpretations can be given only by those who follow the footprints of Arjuna, or, in other words, one who happens to come in the line of disciple succession from Sri Arjuna as it was formerly delivered from Vivasvan to Manu (and Ikshvaku). That is the first condition of understanding Bhagavad-Gita. And, violations of this condition means breaking of the link of disciple succession and thereby losing the real purpose of the great philosophy. Beside, Bhagavad-Gita is not a new thesis of speculative philosophy, but it is as old as the Sun is. We can neither say what is the age of the Sun, nor can anybody calculate the age of Manu. According to authentic sastras, the age of a Manu is 72 x 4,200,000 years. It is also understood that at the present moment, the Manu who has been referred to in the Bhagavad-Gita has been passing his age on the point of the 28th period, out of the above mentioned 72 periods of 4,200,000 years each, and because Manu was told by Vivasvan, it may be safely calculated that Bhagavad-Gita was spoken once before the battle of Kurukshetra at least 197,600,000 one hundred ninety-seven million sixty hundreds of thousand years before.
A transcendental source of knowledge which was coming down in a chain of disciple succession for millions of years before the battle of Kurukshetra must have been studied by various scholars of the period, but still, we don’t find more than one edition or interpretation of the Bhagavad-Gita as represented by Sri Arjuna; but during the last two hundred years, we have so many interpretations of Bhagavad-Gita by different speculators. This advancement of speculative activities by different mundane without any reference to the chain of disciple succession, are all mala fide interpretations, and spread of such mala fide knowledge on the so-called basis of the Great Book of Knowledge, will do more harm than good to the people” says Swami Prabhupada.

 REFERENCES:
2) Ramachndra Rao, S. K., Gita Kosha (Trisati), Kalpataru Research Academy, Shankar Matt, Bengaluru, India.
3) Swami Vireswaranada, Srimad Bhagavad Gita,  Ramakrihna Math, Chennai, India.
4) Srinivasan N.R., Uncommon Understanding of The Unknown and Its worship, <nrsrini.blogspot.com>
5)  Prabha Duneja,  Bhagawad Geeta, Govindaram Hasanand, Delhi, India.
6) A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Interpretations of Bhagavad Gita, IndiaDivine.Org
7) Dr. Rajni Kant Lahri,   More Gods than One in Hinduism? IndiaDivine.Org
8) Harry Bhalla, The Bhagavad-Gita, International  Gita Society, Fremont, CA, USA.

APPPENDIX
Interpretations of Bhagavad Gita
Posted by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada | Jun 28, 2013 | IndiaDivine.Org
[by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, originally published circa 1948 ]
It has become a luxurious fashion of the day, along with the progress of material civilization, that everyone can make his interpretation of the great Indian philosophy called the Bhagavad-gita. This concise form of Vedic knowledge, known as the Gitopanisad, is acknowledged by all sections of transcendental scholars, in India especially, as the cream of all Upanisads and that of Vedanta-sutras also.
Scholars and acharyas like Sripada Sankaracarya and some of his followers also could not leave out this very important book of knowledge, although such scholars of the Mayavada school did not acknowledge the bona fides of the Puranas. But the interpretation of Sri Sankaracharya differs from the interpretations of the Vaisnava acharyas headed by Sri Ramanujacharya and Madhvacharya. There are innumerable interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gita in the market, and it is certainly a puzzling business to select which of the various interpretations shall be accepted as bona fide and which of them shall be rejected as mala fide.
In order to make a distinction between these two classes of bona fide and mala fide interpretations, we have to make an impartial study of the book, and such unbiased study only will make us able to discern the bona fide from the mala fide.
In this connection, we may first of all try to find out the origin of the Bhagavad-Gita. It is wrong to understand that The Bhagavad-gita was first spoken in the battlefield of Kuruksetra as it is a part of the great history of India, namely, the Mahabharata. We can understand from the talks of Sri Krishna and Arjuna, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-Gita, that long, long before the battle of Kurukshetra, this philosophy was once spoken by Sri Krishna to Vivasvan (the Sun), and from Vivasvan the knowledge was transferred to Manu, and from Manu it was transferred to King Ikshvaku. And, in that way of disciple succession, the knowledge has come down to generations after generations, but in course of time, such disciple succession broke, and therefore, Sri Krishna again repeated the same yoga or transcendental knowledge to Arjuna. In the beginning of the 4th Chapter of Bhagavad-Gita, this fact is stated as follows:
sri-bhagavan uvaca
imam vivasvate yogam
proktavan aham avyayam
vivasvan manave praha
manur iksvakave ’bravit
evam parampara-praptam
imam rajarsayo viduh
sa kaleneha mahata
yogo nastah parantapa
sa evayam maya te ’dya
yogah proktah puratanah
bhakto ’si me sakha cheti
rahasyam hy etad uttamam
“The Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krishna, said: I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvan, and Vivasvan instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Iksvaku. This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciple succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost. That very ancient science of the relationship with the Supreme is today told by Me to you because you are My devotee as well as My friend and can therefore understand the transcendental mystery of this science.” [Bg. 4.1-3]
Rishis and kings or the kings who were as good as the rishis is the meaning of the word rajarishayah, and, as such, every one, whether he was a householder or mendicant, knew Bhagavad-Gita before the battle of Kurukshetra, or before the period of Mahabharata, which is calculated to be at least five thousand years before, and as such, how it is hinted that the same knowledge was lost. That transcendental knowledge was lost because there must have been some mala fide interpretations of the knowledge, and such knowledge would do more harm than good to the people. It had to be repeated again by Sri Krishna before a bona fide king, and for this, Arjuna was selected at a critical moment because Sri Krishna acknowledged him to be not only a confidential friend, but also a bona fide devotee at the same time. We have to mark the words especially bhakto ’si etc.
bhakto ’si me sakha cheti
rahasyam hy etad uttamam
“Because you are My devotee as well as My friend and can therefore understand the transcendental mystery of this science.” [Bg. 4.3]
Sri Krishna had many friends and relatives at that time who might have been great scholars also, but He selected Arjuna as the bona fide person to grasp the knowledge of Bhagavad-Gita only because Arjuna was a great devotee of the Lord. It may be concluded therefore that the principle of Bhagavad-Gita can be understood only by personalities like Arjuna, who was a completely surrendered soul to Sri Krishna, and this knowledge (yoga) can be explained only by personalities like Sri Krishna (i. e. His bona fide devotees) or for the matter of that by the Personality of Godhead only.
Under such circumstances, the bona fide interpretations can be given only by those who follow the footprints of Arjuna, or, in other words, one who happens to come in the line of disciple succession from Sri Arjuna as it was formerly delivered from Vivasvan to Manu (and Iksvaku). That is the first condition of understanding Bhagavad-Gita. And, violations of this condition means breaking of the link of disciple succession and thereby losing the real purpose of the great philosophy. Beside, Bhagavad-Gita is not a new thesis of speculative philosophy, but it is as old as the Sun is. Nobody can say what is the age of the Sun, neither can anybody calculate the age of Manu. According to authentic sastras, the age of a Manu is 72 x 4,200,000 years. It is also understood that at the present moment, the Manu who has been referred to in the Bhagavad-Gita has been passing his age on the point of the 28th period, out of the above mentioned 72 periods of 4,200,000 years each, and because Manu was told by Vivasvan, it may be safely calculated that Bhagavad-Gita was spoken once before the battle of Kurukshetra at least 197,600,000 one hundred ninety-seven million sixty hundreds of thousand years before.
A transcendental source of knowledge which was coming down in a chain of disciple succession for millions of years before the battle of Kurukshetra must have been studied by various scholars of the period, but still, we don’t find more than one edition or interpretation of the Bhagavad-Gita as represented by Sri Arjuna; but during the last two hundred years, we have so many interpretations of Bhagavad-Gita by different speculators. This advancement of speculative activities by different mundaners without any reference to the chain of disciple succession, are all mala fide interpretations, and spread of such mala fide knowledge on the so-called basis of the Great Book of Knowledge, will do more harm than good to the people.
We find also in the last chapter of the Bhagavad-Gita, that the Personality of Godhead has persistently advised that the essence of Bhagavad-Gita must not be disclosed to a person at any time who has not undergone any disciplinary method of austerity and penances, who is not a devotee of Sri Krishna, who is unwilling to accept the teachings of Bhagavad-Gita and, lastly, one who actually envies Sri Krishna, the Personality of Godhead. The sloka which instructs the above procedure runs as follows:
idam te naatapaskaaya
naa bhaktaaya kadacana
na chasusrushave vachyam
na cha maam yo  abhyasuyati
“This confidential knowledge may never be explained to those who are not austere, or devoted, or engaged in devotional service, nor to one who is envious of Me.” [Bg. 18.67]
So, according to Bhagavad-Gita, the following four classes of readers are incompetent to understand the principle of Bhagavad-Gita, and therefore they are not able to make any bona fide interpretations whatsoever. They are:
1. Ordinary men who have no training in austerity or penance.
2. Those who are not devotees of Godhead but are either mundane workers, mundane philosophers or mundane mystics.
3. Those who do not come in the line of disciple succession like Vivasvaan, Manu, Ikshvaku, Arjuna, etc.
4. Those who disbelieve Sri Krishna as the Absolute Personality of Godhead.
And, these unlucky four classes of men are described in the Bhagavad-Gita as (a) Naraadhamah the lowest class of men, (b) mudhah non-intelligent men of society, © mayayapahrta-jnana persons who have sufficient mundane education, but they are robbed of essential knowledge by the illusory energy or maya, and (d) the asuras who disbelieve in the very existence of Godhead. The sloka which describes the above fact runs as follows:
na mam duskrtino mudhah
prapadyante naradhamah
mayayapahrta-jnana
asuram bhavam asritah
“Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, who are lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons do not surrender unto Me.” [Bg. 7.15]
These four mala fide classes of men have done tremendous harm to the society by making mala fide interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gita according to their limited sensual perceptions, and the result is that the whole atmosphere has been surcharged with mala fide poisons, which are eating the vital necessities of life. We can very well imagine how this process can do harm if we compare it partially with adulterated foodstuff or adulterated medicines. Foodstuff and medicines are concerned with the material body only, but the knowledge which is administered in the Bhagavad-Gita is concerned with spirit soul. In the very beginning of Bhagavad-Gita, the identity of the material body and the spirit soul has been elaborately explained, and the specific instruction of Bhagavad-Gita has always been stressed for the benefit of the spirit soul. The subject matter of the material body and mind has not been neglected in Bhagavad-Gita, but on the contrary, it has been nicely coordinated with the necessities of the spirit soul; but more importance and attention has been drawn on the subject matter of the spirit soul. Therefore, if we protest so much against spread of adulterated foodstuff and medicines which are concerned with the temporary material body only, we have to protest more vigorously against the spread of adulterated interpretations of Bhagavad-Gita because that concerns to the eternal vital power of the spirit soul.
avinaasi tu tad viddhi
yena sarvam idam tatam
“That which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible.” [Bg. 2.17]
For ordinary class of men, the Bhagavad-Gita has enjoined “sastra-vidhi”, i. e. such men have been advised to follow the instructions as have been enjoined in the authentic scriptures. Because the outlaws who are reluctant to follow the instructions of the scriptures cannot ever be successful in all their attempts, and as such they cannot have any peace and prosperity or be elevated to the spiritual or transcendental plane. It is stated in the Bhagavad-Gita as follows:
yah saastra-vidhim utsrijya
vartate kaama-kaaratah
na sa siddhim avaapnoti
na sukham na paraam gatim
“He who discards scriptural injunctions and acts according to his own whims attains neither perfection, nor happiness, nor the supreme destination.” [Bg. 16.23]
Such ordinary men, when they manufacture spiritual procedure of austerity or penances for any such pseudo-spiritualistic method, do so according to the mundane quality they might have acquired in the course of their mundane activities. The mundane qualities being divided into three categories, such pseudo-spiritualistic methods are also divided into three categories, namely sattvic (mode of goodness), rajasic (mode of passion) and tamasic mode of ignorance). This is described as follows in the Bhagavad-gita, namely, (Ch. 17.1–10):
arjuna uvaca
ye saastra-vidhim utsrjya
yajante sraddhayaanvitah
tesham nisthaa tu ka kri shna
sattvam aho rajas tamah
sri-bhagavan uvaca
tri-vidha bhavati sraddha
dehinam sa svabhava-ja
sattviki rajasi caiva
tamasi ceti tam srnu
sattvanurupa sarvasya
sraddha bhavati bharata
sraddha-mayo ’yam puruso
yo yac-chraddhah sa eva sah
yajante sattvika devan
yaksa-raksamsi rajasah
pretan bhuta-ganams canye
yajante tamasa janah
asastra-vihitam ghoram
tapyante ye tapo janah
dambhahankara-samyuktah
kama-raga-balanvitah
karsayantah sarira-stham
bhuta-gramam acetasah
mam caivantah sarira-stham
tan viddhy asura-niscayan
aharas tv api sarvasya
tri-vidho bhavati priyah
yajnas tapas tatha danam
tesam bhedam imam srnu
ayuh-sattva-balarogya-
sukha-priti-vivardhanah
rasyah snigdhah sthira hrdya
aharah sattvika-priyah
katv-amla-lavanaty-usna
tiksna-ruksa-vidahinah
ahara rajasasyesta
duhkha-sokamaya-pradah
yata-yamam gata-rasam
puti paryusitam ca yat
ucchistam api camedhyam
bhojanam tamasa-priyam
“Arjuna inquired: O Krsna, what is the situation of those who do not follow the principles of scripture but worship according to their own imagination? Are they in goodness, in passion or in ignorance?
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: According to the modes of nature acquired by the embodied soul, one’s faith can be of three kinds—in goodness, in passion or in ignorance. Now hear about this.
O son of Bharata, according to one’s existence under the various modes of nature, one evolves a particular kind of faith. The living being is said to be of a particular faith according to the modes he has acquired.
Men in the mode of goodness worship the demigods; those in the mode of passion worship the demons; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits.
Those who undergo severe austerities and penances not recommended in the scriptures, performing them out of pride and egoism, who are impelled by lust and attachment, who are foolish and who torture the material elements of the body as well as the Supersoul dwelling within, are to be known as demons.
Even the food each person prefers is of three kinds, according to the three modes of material nature. The same is true of sacrifices, austerities and charity. Now hear of the distinctions between them.
Foods dear to those in the mode of goodness increase the duration of life, purify one’s existence and give strength, health, happiness and satisfaction. Such foods are juicy, fatty, wholesome, and pleasing to the heart.
Foods that are too bitter, too sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry and burning are dear to those in the mode of passion. Such foods cause distress, misery and disease.
Food prepared more than three hours before being eaten, food that is tasteless, decomposed and putrid, and food consisting of remnants and untouchable things is dear to those in the mode of darkness.” [Bg. 17.1-10]
So, these ordinary men who are influenced by the three modes of Nature can work out a plan of their sensual pleasure, but it is not possible for them to give authentic interpretations of Bhagavad-Gita as it was spoken by the Personality of Godhead to Vivasvan or Arjuna. The whole thing is received in transcendental submissiveness by aural reception, which is not accepted by the mundane wranglers deliberately refusing to approach the bona fide spiritual master who has got the keynote of Bhagavad-Gita. It is therefore stated in the Bhagavad-Gita that one who actually wants to have an access to the essence of Bhagavad-Gita must himself engage in the service of a bona fide spiritual master by full surrender. In that position only, one can make bona fide enquiries regarding the Bhagavad-Gita, and in that posture only, the self-realized spiritual masters impregnate the submissive disciple with the knowledge of Gita, because they have already seen the Truth of it.
tad viddhi pranipatena
pariprasnena sevaya
upadeksyanti te jnanam
jnaninas tattva-darsinah
“Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized souls can impart knowledge unto you because they have seen the truth.” [Bg. 4.34]
Mental speculators can manufacture wonderful interpretations of Bhagavad-Gita by an intellectual activity, but such interpretation cannot be accepted as bona fide because that is not transcendental to the mundane senses, neither to the material mind in subtle state. As it is stated in the Bhagavad-Gita, such interpretations depending on the mind and senses are sure to be doomed like a boat on the troubled sea. It is said there:
indriyanam hi caratam
yan mano ’nuvidhiyate
tad asya harati prajnam
vayur navam ivambhasi
tasmad yasya maha-baho
nigrhitani sarvasah
indriyanindriyarthebhyas
tasya prajna pratisthita
ya nisa sarva-bhutanam
tasyam jagarti samyami
yasyam jagrati bhutani
sa nisa pasyato muneh
apuryamanam acala-pratistham
samudram apah pravisanti yadvat
tadvat kama yam pravisanti sarve
sa santim apnoti na kama-kami
vihaya kaman yah sarvan
pumams carati nihsprhah
nirmamo nirahankarah
sa santim adhigacchati
esa brahmi sthitih partha
nainam prapya vimuhyati
sthitvasyam anta-kale ’pi
brahma-nirvanam rcchati
“As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the roaming senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man’s intelligence.
Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence.
What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.
A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires—that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being filled but is always still—can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.
A person who has given up all desires for sense gratification, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego—he alone can attain real peace.
That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated, even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.” [Bg. 2.67–72]
By these presents it is not however meant that we shall have to accept somebody who is a professional spiritual master or a social spiritual master. The transcendentalist is one who has known Sri Krishna as He is. Sri Krishna is never the person Who can be conceived by mental or physical adjustment. He can only be known by those who have full surrender unto Him. He cannot be understood by sense perception because He is behind a curtain spread by yogamaya. Unless that curtain is removed by the process of transcendental loving co-operation with Him, one cannot know Sri Krishna as He is.
naham prakasah sarvasya
yoga-maya-samavrtah
manusyanam sahasresu
kascid yatati siddhaye
yatatam api siddhanam
kascin mam vetti tattvatah
avajananti mam mudha
manusIm tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto
mama bhuta-mahesvaram
“I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My internal potency.” [Bg. 7.25]
“Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth.” [Bg. 7.3]
“Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature as the Supreme Lord of all that be.” [Bg. 9.11]
Sri Vyasadeva experienced Sri Bhagavan in the following way (Sanskrit quote).
(Page four.) This param bhavam or transcendental nature of Sri Krsna, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, is unknowable to the unlucky four classes of men as aforesaid. Some of them who are influenced by asurabhava or demoniac nature especially consider that Sri Krsna is no better than an ordinary man and the extraordinary qualities that He possessed can be acquired by any ordinary man, or in other words, any one and every one can become a Sri Krsna or more than Him. But the mahatmas who are graced by Sri Krsna know Him otherwise. Such mahatmas know Sri Krsna as the Supreme Personality bhutamahesvaram, while the asuras or raksasas (like Ravana and Hiranyakasipu) who defy Sri Krsna as the Supreme Being above everthing and thereby are baffled in their speculative work, frustrated in their hopes, befooled in their search of knowledge thus remain entrapped by the illusory laws of material nature which they are unable to conquer by any amount of speculative method. [margin note: (Nobody is at or above: (asrama urdhva))] These asuras and mahatmas are definitely distinguished in the Bhagavad-gita in so many words, as in Chapter 9, Texts 12–14:
moghasa mogha-karmano
mogha-jnana vicetasah
raksasim asurim caiva
prakrtim mohinim sritah
mahatmanas tu mam partha
daivim prakrtim asritah
bhajanty ananya-manaso
jnatva bhutadim avyayam
satatam kirtayanto mam
yatantas ca drdha-vratah
namasyantas ca mam bhaktya
nitya-yukta upasate
“Those who are thus bewildered are attracted by demonic and atheistic views. In that deluded condition, their hopes for liberation, their fruitive activities, and their culture of knowledge are all defeated.
O son of Prtha, those who are not deluded, the great souls, are under the protection of the divine nature. They are fully engaged in devotional service because they know Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, original and inexhaustible.
Always chanting My glories, endeavoring with great determination, bowing down before Me, these great souls perpetually worship Me with devotion.” [Bg. 9.12-14]
The whole purpose of Bhagavad-gita is to reveal Sri Krsna the Personality of Godhead as He is. The whole theme of Bhagavad-gita is to preach the surrendering process of all living beings unto the Lotus feet of Sri Krsna, because all living beings are His parts and parcels, and without this surrendering process, nobody can conquer the indefiable laws of Nature. Material existence of all living beings means a perpetual struggle struggle for existence and a continued fight with Prakriti without any success. [margin note (as done by induction)] Advancement of material science has undoubtedly discovered many weapons by the Asuras to fight with the laws of Nature, but without full surrender unto the Lord Krsna, nobody can get relief from such perpetual struggle for existence. The fittest person who shall survive this struggle is one who has completely surrendered unto the Will of Sri Krsna the Personality of Godhead. This fact is stated in the Bhagavad-gita in the following words:
daivi hy esa guna-mayi
mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante
mayam etam taranti te
“This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.” [Bg. 7.14]
man-mana bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi satyam te
pratijane priyo ’si me
sarva-dharman parityajya
mam ekam saranam vraja
aham tvam sarva-papebhyo
moksayisyami ma sucah
“Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.”
“Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear.” [Bg. 18.65–66]
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
budha bhava-samanvitah
mac-citta mad-gata-prana
bodhayantah parasparam
kathayantas ca mam nityam
tusyanti ca ramanti ca
tesam satata-yuktanam
bhajatam priti-purvakam
dadami buddhi-yogam tam
yena mam upayanti te
tesam evanukampartham
aham ajnana-jam tamah
nasayamy atma-bhava-stho
jnana-dipena bhasvata
“I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts.
The thoughts of My pure devotees dwell in Me, their lives are fully devoted to My service, and they derive great satisfaction and bliss from always enlightening one another and conversing about Me.
To those who are constantly devoted to serving Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me.
To show them special mercy, I, dwelling in their hearts, destroy with the shining lamp of knowledge the darkness born of ignorance.” [Bg. 10.8-11]
There are certain extraordinarily learned prospective mahatmas who try to understand Sri Krsna by the ascending process of acquiring knowledge, but such process is not only defective, but also troublesome. Such learned scholars attain the Lotus feet of Sri Krsna after many, many births and deaths. Such would-be mahatmas are stated in the Bhagavad-gita as follows:
bahunam janmanam ante
jnanavan mam prapadyate
vasudevah sarvam iti
sa mahatma su-durlabhah
“After many births and deaths, he who is actually in knowledge surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be the cause of all causes and all that is. Such a great soul is very rare.” [Bg. 7.19]
avyaktam vyaktim apannam
manyante mam abuddhayah
param bhavam ajananto
mamavyayam anuttamam
“Unintelligent men, who do not know Me perfectly, think that I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, was impersonal before and have now assumed this personality. Due to their small knowledge, they do not know My higher nature, which is imperishable and supreme.” [Bg. 7.24]
avyakto ’ksara ity uktas
tam ahuh paramam gatim
yam prapya na nivartante
tad dhama paramam mama
purusah sa parah partha
bhaktya labhyas tv ananyaya
yasyantah-sthani bhutani
yena sarvam idam tatam
“That which the Vedantis describe as unmanifest and infallible, that which is known as the supreme destination, that place from which, having attained it, one never returns—that is My supreme abode.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is greater than all, is attainable by unalloyed devotion. Although He is present in His abode, He is all-pervading, and everything is situated within Him.” [Bg. 8.21-22]
jnana-yajnena capy anye
yajanto mam upasate
ekatvena prthaktvena
bahudha visvato-mukham
“Others, who engage in sacrifice by the cultivation of knowledge, worship the Supreme Lord as the one without a second, as diverse in many, and in the universal form.” [Bg. 9.15]
kleso ’dhikataras tesam
avyaktasakta-cetasam
avyakta hi gatir duhkham
dehavadbhir avapyate
ye tu sarvani karmani
mayi sannyasya mat-parah
ananyenaiva yogena
mam dhyayanta upasate
tesam aham samuddharta
mrtyu-samsara-sagarat
bhavami na cirat partha
mayy avesita-cetasam
“For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Supreme, advancement is very troublesome. To make progress in that discipline is always difficult for those who are embodied.
But those who worship Me, giving up all their activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotinal service and always meditating upon Me, having fixed their minds upon Me, O son of Prtha—for them I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death.” [Bg. 12.5-7]
Preaching of Bhagavad-gita is not, therefore, a proposition of mental speculation and putting in different mental interpretations of speculative empiric philosphers. It is one without a second concrete fact for the amelioration of the sufferings of humanity especially and animality generally. It must be presented in the bona fide method of spreading the knowledge, strictly in the line of transcendental chain of disciple succession. Om Tat Sat.